Human anatomy studies
the “structure of body parts and their relationships to one another” (Marieb
and Hoehn, 2007, p.2-3). Similarly, Human physiology “concerns the functions of
the body, how the body parts work and carry out their life sustaining
activities” (ibid.p.2).


In health and
social care, the physiological principles are to provide a holistic overview of
the human body, structure and functioning as appropriation for healthcare professionals. This
essay will seek to identify all the ten anatomical features of the biological
systems; thus a brief explanation of seven anatomical features and its functions,
including a detailed explanation of three biological systems (the gastrointestinal
system, the respiratory system and circulatory system). Moreover, this essay
will also explore the importance of routine data collection in care planning as
well as, the environmental and physical factors which hinder the functional performance
of the body, and the impact it has on care delivered to service users in health
and social care settings based on the given case study.


1.1  The
human body has ten biological systems that carry out specific functions, which
are beneficial for our everyday living. The anatomical features of the human
biological systems are as follows:


immune system: It defends the body against pathogenic microbes and germs
that are exposed to the human body everyday. The body’s defensive mechanism is achieved
through a series of steps called the immune response. This attacks disease-causing
microbes which are likely to invade the body’s system. The immune system is
also composed of specialised cells, various tissues, organs and proteins that
work together to protect the body. One of the main cells involve in the body’s defensive
activity is the white blood cells, also known as leukocytes. These are produced
in many parts of the body. The organs and tissues involved in the immune system
are called lymphoid organs which are; spleen, bone marrow, thymus, appendix,
lymph nodes, tonsils and the Peyer’s patches found throughout the small intestinal
duct. Primarily, leukocytes come in two types; phagocytes and lymphocytes. The
phagocytic cells chew harmful microorganism whilst the lymphatic cells allow
the body recognise previous infectious microbes and help the body to destroy
them. Lymphocytes also consists of two types of cells; B- cells and T-cells.

B-cells produce antibodies to attack foreign antigens that causes harm to the
body. T-cells, however, has two main functions; to recognise and destroy
malignant cells, and to orchestrate an immune response which play a vital role in


The renal
system: Includes the kidneys, the ureters, the urethra and the bladder. It
is designed to produce, store and eliminate excess waste product excreted by
the kidneys, called urea.



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