Human anatomy studiesthe “structure of body parts and their relationships to one another” (Marieband Hoehn, 2007, p.2-3). Similarly, Human physiology “concerns the functions ofthe body, how the body parts work and carry out their life sustainingactivities” (ibid.p.2).
In health andsocial care, the physiological principles are to provide a holistic overview ofthe human body, structure and functioning as appropriation for healthcare professionals. Thisessay will seek to identify all the ten anatomical features of the biologicalsystems; thus a brief explanation of seven anatomical features and its functions,including a detailed explanation of three biological systems (the gastrointestinalsystem, the respiratory system and circulatory system). Moreover, this essaywill also explore the importance of routine data collection in care planning aswell as, the environmental and physical factors which hinder the functional performanceof the body, and the impact it has on care delivered to service users in healthand social care settings based on the given case study. 1.1 Thehuman body has ten biological systems that carry out specific functions, whichare beneficial for our everyday living. The anatomical features of the humanbiological systems are as follows: · Theimmune system: It defends the body against pathogenic microbes and germsthat are exposed to the human body everyday. The body’s defensive mechanism is achievedthrough a series of steps called the immune response. This attacks disease-causingmicrobes which are likely to invade the body’s system.
The immune system isalso composed of specialised cells, various tissues, organs and proteins thatwork together to protect the body. One of the main cells involve in the body’s defensiveactivity is the white blood cells, also known as leukocytes. These are producedin many parts of the body. The organs and tissues involved in the immune systemare called lymphoid organs which are; spleen, bone marrow, thymus, appendix,lymph nodes, tonsils and the Peyer’s patches found throughout the small intestinalduct. Primarily, leukocytes come in two types; phagocytes and lymphocytes. Thephagocytic cells chew harmful microorganism whilst the lymphatic cells allowthe body recognise previous infectious microbes and help the body to destroythem. Lymphocytes also consists of two types of cells; B- cells and T-cells.
B-cells produce antibodies to attack foreign antigens that causes harm to thebody. T-cells, however, has two main functions; to recognise and destroymalignant cells, and to orchestrate an immune response which play a vital role inimmunity. · The renalsystem: Includes the kidneys, the ureters, the urethra and the bladder.
Itis designed to produce, store and eliminate excess waste product excreted bythe kidneys, called urea.