Recent reports have indicated that an estimated 2% of America’s population has contacted chronic strains of the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) or the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV).

An average of 15000 annual deaths has been ascribed to Hepatitis or other liver related infections. It should be noted that up to 75% of the infected populace are not aware they have the disease. The state of affairs is worsened by the limited fiscal resources allotted by the exchequer. A meager 2% of the medical budget is reserved for Hepatitis as compared to 69% slated for AIDS. The disparity exists; although, both diseases originate from viral infections (Peters, 2010). Limited resources have brought about reduced awareness levels in the public domain, which creates a challenge when enforcing disease surveillance measures. To counter the disease, enhanced societal education and accessible services are crucial.

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This can be achieved by cooperation between management and healthcare providers at the different levels in which they operate. Prevention measures should also be enhanced, with prominence on vaccination against Hepatitis B promoted. This can be achieved if all states enforced legislation to make it a necessity before access to basic needs, like education (Peters, 2010).

Summarily, efforts should be launched simultaneously across all fronts, with emphasis on; outreach and awareness; deterring fresh occurrences, clear identification of infected persons; providing social and peer support for the identified persons; medical management of infected persons. Select groups in the society should also be monitored keenly, especially; users of illicit drugs; immigrants, tourists and other visitors; persons who were previously held or are currently serving jail time and expectant mothers (Peters, 2010).

Racial Inequality

The differences occasioned by racial heritage play an integral role in determining the health status and lifespan of American citizens.

It is notable that residents of color record lower life expectancy levels than their white counterparts. Surprisingly, killer diseases are similar across the board, with cancer, heart ailments and stroke being lead killers for both races. The difference is occasioned by awareness levels and availability of necessary facilities. Statistics have also revealed that black women show lower rates of contacting breast cancer; although they are more susceptible to the same as compared to white ladies.

This has also been accredited to lack of consciousness and necessary medical facilities (Gillian, 2010). In addition, lifestyles of the two communities also add to their vulnerability. White residents live in affluent neighborhoods, with access to basic amenities and easy access to premier quality services. In these areas, security is the least of concerns hence relative peace of mind is existent among the residents. In the black neighborhoods, security is a paramount concern, a factor which contributes to their stress levels.

Coupled with other factors, the apparent uneasiness resulting thereof impacts negatively on them, affecting their health in the process (Gillian, 2010). Lack of jobs is another factor that contributes to the existing difference between the two races. The closure of industries and other job creating ventures resulted in high-unemployment rates. This translates to a lack of proceeds, making it difficult for them to access therapeutic insurance policies or cash required before an individual gains the right to use these services.

This compares poorly with the white youths who have disposable income to spend due to employment opportunities or the fiscal ability of their parents (Gillian, 2010).

Female Circumcision

This practice is widespread across a number of nations especially in Africa. The process is carried out differently, depending on the cultural values espoused by a community. Some natives are known to rub turmeric on the genitals, while others draw blood from the clitoris. It is noted that others are known to cut off sections of the clitoris. It is noteworthy, that the magnitude of flesh which is removed off from the clitoris varies depending on the community.

For some nations, this trend is backed by religious principles. This includes Indonesia among other Islamic states. Medical personnel have indicated that this practice does not have any benefits. The male version of the practice has been applauded for the myriad of positives that arise. It is affirmed that instances of abridged HIV infectivity rates have been reported (Corbett, 2008). It is commendable that several nations in Africa have taken the initiative of outlawing the practice, following similar moves by western nations.

This equates to a drop in the ocean since many nations still engage in the practice, using religion and culture as an excuse to propagate the practice. For them, this practice regulates hormonal levels in the ladies and makes them more appealing brides. In addition, their libido levels are normalized. Summarily, health officers attached to the UN have emphasized illegality of this act, exerting pressure on policy makers to outlaw the practice. The move is bearing fruit in some nations like Indonesia, where government practitioners are forbidden from performing the same.

While such efforts mark considerable steps in the right direction, activists should be on the lookout for a backlash from natives. It is essential to rope in all stake holders and cultural leaders in attempts to minimize the habit, as opposed to waging open war against them (Corbett, 2008).


Corbett, S.

(2008). A cutting tradition. The New York Times Retrieved on November 22, 2010 Gillian, H. (2010).

Racial inequality: a public health issue. KALWNEWS Retrieved on November 22, 2010 from Peters, D.

(2010). Hepatitis B and C remain public health issue — up to 5.3 million Americans infected. Medical News Retrieved on November 22, 2010 from


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