Have you ever wondered about plant microRNA present in the traces of our human blood? While as we can say that this topic can be a little tricky and It seems very unlikely that small plant RNAs could survive the processing and digestion of food. To the contrary, this is exactly what we would expect. However cross-kingdom regulation was a controversial topic initially. But now lots of reports have been published on plants microRNA when they enter in human with diet in a mechanism.  To know more about this we go deep into the topic and find the article published where Zhang and his team of other researchers were working on miRNA and for his wonder they had found some of them present in human milk, something interesting here is to know about is finding of miRNAs in bodily fluids which brainstormed his mind where he comes up with the idea that dietary factors may influence the presence of plant miRNAs in the serum of mammals. To test this hypothesis of his he tested few healthy Chinese and was surprised to find out different types of plant miRNAs present with his idea of mostly dietary influence since these patients diet consists of rice and vegetables. When the concentrations were compared to the endogenous human miRNA they found to be in equal concentrations. MIR156a and MIR168a were normally present in higher concentrations, which can be usually found in their dietary sources. Additionally, the researchers detected the two microRNAs in the blood, lungs, small intestine, and livers of mice, in varying concentrations which remarkably increased after the mice were fed raw rice. The researchers found that MIR168a shared complimentary sequences with 50 mammalian genes from the database sequence to find the putative target for MIR156a and MIR168a. LDLRAP1 is highly expressed in the liver, where it interacts with the low-density lipoprotein receptor to help remove low-density lipoprotein. Once in the liver, MIR168a binds to LDLRAP1 mRNA, reducing the protein levels and ultimately impairing the removal of LDL from the blood.To know further about this conjecture the team had made synthetic MIR168a into human epithelial cell line and collected the secreted micovesicles and added them to liver cells and found that it did not change the LDLRAP1 mRNA but in contradiction decreased the levels of LDLRAP1 protein. Meanwhile, the LDLRAP1 protein level decreased in the livers of live mice 3 to 7 days after eating fresh rice or being injected with synthetic MIR168a—significantly increasing LDL in the blood. When the researchers injected the mice with an RNA sequence that bound to and neutralized MIR168a, the protein and LDL levels returned to normal.The plant microRNAs have been present in the human as well as other animals serum when investigated the serum of the humans they found that the miRNAs were present in the serum of healthy Chinese people. They had no metabolic dysfunction, as well as the diet, consists of rice. Plant miRNAs were also found in other mammals such as cows whose diet was mostly plant-based.And when all the concentrations where calculated. The tested plant miRNAs were clearly present in sera from humans, mice, and calves.The concentrations were calculated in which we find that the miRNA was present in sera from humans, mice and calves where the concentrations where competitively lower.The plant miRNAs which function as regulatory factors in the article by Chao Zhang where the food derived miRNAs enter the GI tract which thereby enter into the plasma and serum of mammals, which RNA and control regulation. In which they first checked for the target prediction for human and Arabiodos for 25miRNAs ,where the screening process and by selecting filter parameters had been narrowed down to 3000 human and 1800 plant targets and through functional enrichment analysis they found seven modules highly enriched in function which was characterized into three functional categories 1) Transport 2) Other metabolic process 3) Immune response in which Transport includes the inorganic compounds which is usually present in fruits and vegetables which are closely linked to dietary process. Here the results protein expression levels of the organs to investigate the interaction between cross species target where they found enrichment in both Digestive and Urinary tract which indicates the close connection to these targets. When we see the functional similarity we find that the gene FER involved in the iron transport in humans is also involved in the plants. In other Immune response we find that the high rate of cellular response to the molecules of bacterial origin, in response to LPS which is present in gram negative bacteria which bacteria responds positively to AXINS/M3 which is associated to 26 genes Myeloid leucocyte mediated immunity.By enrichment analysis and literature search we find that they are similarities between Arabidobis and human which is not only at generic level but also mechanism.So far, there exists no connection between these two response mechanisms. It is reported the stress response is generally transient because its accompanying effects can be harmful in the long term. However, if these exogenous miRNAs exist in the human chronically from the daily food consumption, they may have lasting evolutionary effects on a human population with similar food sources.


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