Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivation under Mediterranean climatic conditions, occurs mainly under semi-arid regimes and facing new challenges as several climatic models predict more incidents of drought to occur for the next decades with a pronounced decrease in year’s average precipitation and more often water scarcity events, accompanied by higher mean temperatures especially during critical phenological stages of grapevine in summer. The projections by the global and regional model simulations are generally consistent arising issues concerning modifications on viticultural practices applied nowadays. The annual warming rate in southern Europe (Greece) is expected to elevate with significant impact on evaporation rates and thus on water sources and availability in these regions.3
For most red grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) berry chemical attributes considered as indicators of quality and dynamics in the modern winemaking industry. Furthermore, the quantity of a certain group of secondary metabolites as anthocyanins can impact significantly color wine attributes such as hue, intensity, and stability. Numerous enzymes and their encoding genes are involved in this pathway indicating its complicated nature and thus the diversions that can be observed among different varieties. Nevertheless berry skin anthocyanin profiles considered highly genetic dependent and thus the relative proportions of berry skin anthocyanins are considered as a variety categorisation criterion and an classify the wines according to their variety or geographical origin. Furthermore several parameters have proven to influence differently anthocyanin accumulation and composition. The 3-glucosides, acetylglucosides, p-coumaroylglucosides and/or caffeoylglucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and/or malvidin have been detected in different V. vinifera L varieties.5 In experiments with controlled high temperature, the anthocyanin contents were reduced 6.