Going further in-depth tounderstand youth transgression, strengths and weaknesses, and comparing andcontrasting between all three theories is necessary. It is important to know that Control Theoryviews that everyone has the potential to become delinquent. Control Theory explains that there areinverse correlations between these factors and committing deviance.
This can be viewed as a strength becauseindividuals without control, defy moral codes because their attachments tosociety is weak. Self-control is theconcept around all of the known facts about crimes. The theories strengths are looking at thepressures and containments of the individual such as outer or social, pressuresand pulls, external and internal containments, and inner pushes. Other theories pay an insignificant amount ofconsideration to facts about the nature of crimes.
Crimes can be explained as being committed inthe pursuit of desires and the escaping of pain. The downside to this theory is that becauseof all of these factors, everyone has the potential to become delinquent andcriminal. Through the lack ofself-control, it does not mean that an individual will become deviant, it isneither an adequate or a necessary condition for crime to occur. The lack of self-concept will only providesituations that will form conditions favorable for delinquency. LabelingTheory has more weaknesses than strengths described. I believe that this particular theory doesn’thave any strengths and causes more harm than good. The major point to this theory is that allpeople break the rules and engage in deviance at some point, but only someindividuals receive the label as deviant. Labeling Theory highlights that rule breaking does not create a deviant,but is created through a political process.
Higher groups have the power to classify others as deviant. When these higher powers enforce the label,they are then forcing rule breakers or norm violators to view themselves asdeviant and become that role. Inconclusion to this, labeling someone as deviant and then accepting that role,will then influence them to associate with other deviants, which in turnreinforces his/her deviance career.
WhileAnomie Theory’s strengths are focusing on the cultural conflicts and institutions,it does not ultimately focus on the individual level. Not every individual that is placed in thesecultural conflicts reacts the same, but Anomie Theory allows for the variationof reactions at the individual level. The weaknesses of this theory are the neglections of psychologicalprocesses determining the individual’s responses.
The social structures of means and goals, areonly, but an influence to the deviant behavior. For individuals, you need opportunities available of legitimate institutionalmeans to attain culturally valued goals. Along with this, through the strains of society, alterative valuesdevelop. If an individual is achievingeconomic success and personal reputation through criminal behaviors, then theywill switch to these options instead of school, and legal options or occupations.
Strengths of Anomie Theory is that itrecognizes that the social structures and institutions of society aredisorganized. This socialdisorganization leads to confusion and anomie leading to an increased delinquentbehavior. When there is disorganization,social factors and the environment become unstable. Juveniles struggle to resist temptation iftheir social factors are unstable and control the delinquency urge. Social disorganization is related to socialclass, more so low-income communities, neighborhoods, and families. Thedifferences between Control and Labeling Theory is that within Control Theory,delinquency is the result of poor self-concepts. Anomie can also be placed within this structureand go against Labeling Theory because it is widely based on the labels givenfrom a higher power.
Labeling Theoryfocuses on the social and political processes. The purpose of this is to deprive individuals of their self-image anddignity, in order to create them into accepting of external controls, pulls,pressures, and restraints. In the end,labels are influencing youth crime in contemporary society today. While Control and Anomie Theory goes against Labeling Theory, they cancompare with each other. Anomie fitswithin Control Theories of delinquency. There is a lack of significant attachments to social institutions(family, school, religion) that increases delinquency. Economic instability and social pathology leadto conflicting morals and values that oppose to traditional forces of social controls.
Social factors (disorganization) also impactsand weakens the social controls on the behaviors and actions of deviance. Delinquency is to be expected of mostjuveniles who are exposed to it, considering all of the pressures andinducements towards these behaviors. Itis the result of an absence of a working controlled mechanism.