Global integration began to intensify in the 1970’s and 1980’s when the liberalization of capital flows and deregulation of financial markets steadily eroded the scope for national monetary and fiscal policies. However, globalization was first mention in 1986 after the World War II, which generally means deeper integration among nations (Mallory, 1999). This essay will discuss about globalization process for the sovereignty nations outlining clearly use and implications of the globalization process
Globalization is the process by which regional or national economies, communities, and culture have been incorporated into the international network through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, and the spread of technology. It is an ongoing process of ever-tighter linkages among countries (Mallory, 19999).
In addition, it reduces the different divisions of the world to a single community whereby there is so much interdependence between different parts of the world. Moreover, globalization is associated with development of international relations whereby very few nations act independently (Patmann & Rudd 2). Sovereignty is the situation whereby a person or a body has supreme rank, power, or authority over a territory without any legal relationship. It is a traditional working principle whose possibility of survival is very low due to structural changes brought about by globalization (Patmann & Rudd 2). For a state to be sovereign, it must have its own territory, permanent population, a government, independence, and ability to enter in to relations with other sovereign states.
Implications of globalization
Globalization is dominated by an economistic, materialistic and utilistic worldview, making it a very commercial subject. It has led to commercialization of human labor thus losing the value, ethics, and views of a human being. Globalization implies that the reward of human labour should be in terms of demand and supply, which leads to fluctuations of prices offered by the labour market.
Since human being offers labor, he has no choice other than accepting the condition regardless of his/her needs, and in this way, the citizens are used as objects of the economy contrary to the fact that they are supposed to be subjects to the economy (Patmann & Rudd 40). Globalization erodes the power of a nation state because it integrates the whole world into a single entity whereby, there must be a lot of interdependence. This makes a sovereign state very small to tackle big problems and too large for small problems, since it has become increasingly ineffective in attending to its citizens at local level.
The increasing structural transformation has therefore led to legitimacy of governments and international institutions in order to adapt to the accelerating interdependence (Ostry, 1). The general agreement on tariffs and trade (GATT) was an implication of globalization. GATT was formed in the process of integrating the whole world economy since the policies laid down were to affect countries all over the world. It was negotiated during the UN conference on trade and employment after the negotiating governments failed to form the international trade organization, before later being replaced by the present day world trade organization.
The main aim of GATT was to create a balance between domestic priorities and international obligations. Globalization has led to intensive use of information and communication technology (Ostry, 3). Primarily, the world has now reduced to a cyberspace whereby it is now possible to do any international negotiation through the internet. In addition, ICT has led to profound transformation in multinational enterprise and foreign direct investment, making it easier to perform international tasks more efficiently, such as trade. It is evident that through ICT, development of electronic commerce and network markets such as telecommunication is now intact. Moreover, this deepening global integration is creating a momentum to a global single market.
Another implication of globalization is the presence of international non-governmental organizations in most sovereign nation. These organizations have eroded sovereignty since the government has very little power against them. They are mostly based in the rural areas and the kind of services they offer enhances deeper integration. Immigration is another implication of globalization (Bridge, Watson, 161). People now have the freedom to settle trade and do all sort of things in any part of the world. This has posed a challenge to the indigenous communities since it has affected the cultural and social values of the communities. Moving from one part of the world to the other has become very easy due to advanced technology in transport; while foreign languages are being taught all over the world to ensure efficient communication. It is not possible for a country to have its own system of education independent of any other since whatever is learnt in one country must be applicable anywhere else.
This has enabled scholars to be able to get quality education from anywhere regardless of nationality, making it easier to seek employment all over the world; this is because of globalization. AS the process of globalization continues, it has led to devolution whereby, the power that was originally from one central point has been made widespread to particular interests. In addition, the international arena has been integrated up to the local authorities such that no central institutions hold all authority. For instance, it is through devolution that international criminals are taken to Hague, there are so many terrorists all over the world, and so on.
Globalization is an ongoing process, which began long ago, and it will continue indefinitely. When we look at history, it has always been hard to maintain an independent sovereign nation. Records show that during the times of famine in Israel, they moved to Egypt to look for food; this is an evidence of interdependence and migration.
The process of globalization has been moving in phases. It started by formation of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and World Trade Organization, a period when liberalization of capital flows and deregulation of financial markets steadily eroded the scope for national monetary and fiscal policies. It was followed by foreign direct investment especially in capital and technology sector. This is because the aim of globalization has been commercial and this has enabled investors to do business all over the world.
Then came information and communication technology where by one can access all information online thus reducing the world in to a cyberspace. ICT has greatly cut down on cost since one can perform all tasks online without having to travel personally. Currently, globalization has reached a stage where the development of electronic commerce is now on. Moreover, people are performing monetary transactions electronically and this has made life very easy. Generally, globalization has made the world a better place to live. It has incorporated knowledge from the entire world by bringing all kinds of people together thus ensuring that all kinds of questions can be answered.
Finally, it has helped to bridge the gap between the developed and the developing nations through interdependence and trade.
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