Genetic diversity defined as variation and
polymorphism at the DNA level. Allelic diversity enables certain species to be
adaptive in uncertain environments from global warming, and so is considered
necessary for global food security. The selection of diverse parental
combinations resulting from the accurate estimation of genetic diversity with
greater genetic distance to generate segregating populations and introgressing
desirable traits from wild relatives or diverse genetic resources into the
varieties is the suitable case for an application from this evaluation (Gupta et al., 2013). Therefore, genetic
resource collection and evaluation have to be performed. Genetic resources such
as certified mungbean varieties of Thailand which included Chainat (CN) 36, CN 60, CN 72, CN84-1, Kampaeng
Saen 1 (KPS 1), Suranaree University of Technology 1 (SUT 1), SUT4, certified blackgram
varieties comprised of CN2 and CN80 as well as foreign varieties derived from the
World Vegetable Center (formerly the Asian Vegetable Research and Development
Center: AVRDC) that currently holds the world’s largest collection of Vigna
germplasm, consisting 12,153 accessions (6,742 mungbean
accessions and 853 blackgram acessions) (Sue et al., 2015) are crucial for this purpose. The variability of different
morphological characters, such as days to flowering, days to maturity, number
of branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant,
pod length, number of seeds per pod, number of seeds per plant, 100 seed
weight, seed weight (seed yield; kg/ha) and plant height among mungbean and
blackgram has been previously evaluated. However, they are limited in numbers
and often depend on environmental influences for the expression. Genetic
diversity can be further assessed through molecular markers at the DNA level because
of their abundance more than morphological or visible characters and
independent of environmental influences (Tatikonda et al.,
2009). In addition, their qualifications for genetic diversity estimation are
more precise characterization of the genetic relationships and genetic
variations among the genotypes than other markers. Thus, molecular markers provide
an alternative tool for genetic analysis. Various types of molecular markers including
restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), random amplified polymorphic
DNAs (RAPDs), amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), microsatellites
or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), inter-SSR (ISSR), single nucleotide 

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