Generally, we could divide the principle of security concerned in Indonesia, namely traditional security and non-traditional security. According to the Indonesian Government point of view through the Indonesian Defence White Paper 2015, in a traditional security perspective, “the Asia-Pacific region has very complex opportunities and challenges as well as the risk factors that can lead to conflict between nations…” “…South China Sea, East China Sea, the Korean Peninsula disputes, and the tension around some border need to be addressed wisely”.1
Meanwhile, in the non-traditional security perspective, this region has a long history of drug smuggling, human trafficking, gangs armed separatist, arms smuggling, sea piracy, natural resource theft, communal conflict and separatism (national disintegration). Terrorism issues (internal) intensified in the last three decades due to various factors including economic issues and radicalism which is increasing rapidly from time to time. While the threat that coming from abroad in the form of a border conflict, cyber war, proxy war, espionage, terrorism (international terrorism linked and post-Islamic State), and transnational crime.
Recently, non-traditional security in Indonesia has been become top priorities in the national security and defence agenda’s. The first ranked among others is terrorism. Indonesia has the largest Moslem population in the world. It’s contains 88% from 255 million populations. In this situation, Indonesia targeted as a huge resources of the distribution of IS ideology. Therefore, according to the Indonesian Intelligence Agency data, “up to 2017 the number of Indonesian citizen who involved in Syria and Iraq (IS) are 239 men, women 104 to 343 in number, and 90 children in total”. 2 This facts has became indicator to deeply analyze the correlations between IS and the affiliate proxy to recruited resources (Foreign Terrorist Fighters/ FTF) in Indonesia. Another facts it most concerned by the Government is in 2017, Indonesian Intelligence Agency told “84 Indonesians has returning from Iraq and Syria (IS), 68 were men, while 16 were women”.3 This situation happened after IS demolished by international forces who deployed in Iraq and Syria. After repatriation to Indonesia, this former FTF could not be detained by the Indonesian Government. Unfortunately, Indonesia does not have such a basic law to detained former FTF who went “Jihad” and involved with terrorism actions abroad. It’s become huge “home work” for the Government to keep eyes to them.
Another national defence and security priorities are transnational crime. It is considered as an important threat to global security as well. In Southeast Asia, this crime is a serious threat to the stability and security, thus it becomes vulnerable to security and stability. Particularly in Indonesia, transnational crime became serious threats. This threats including illicit drugs trafficking, human trafficking, piracy, weapons smuggling, money laundering, terrorism (external), international banking crime and cybercrime. Indonesian Government gives special strategy and framework to fights the transnational crime. Especially for drug crimes which can be related to the source of funding for terrorist groups and separatism becomes a common and serious threat besides, transnational crimes. Transnational crime development has grown significantly from a region, radical groups and organized crime. The Indonesian Government believes that if the country could ease or reduce the threat, more easy by the Government to develop its nation.
Separatism is still became a security issue in Indonesia. This issue has been becoming threat for national sovereignty, and territorial integrity. Separatism is executed through political movements and armed by exploiting the weaknesses of the implementation of governmental functions. Domestic security handling as a result of horizontal conflict is triggered by the diversity of culture, ethnic, religion, social class, as well as social conditions which characterize the conflicts and occur in certain areas. Another areas has become national threats to Indonesia is the globalization mainstream. Globalization has changes values, mindset, attitudes and patterns of young generations as well as various national issues which significantly affect the national cultural order. Furthermore, science and technology development also has directly or indirectly impacts on existing national socio-cultural values. The comprehension of young generation related to the values of Pancasila (Indonesian ideology), the Indonesian Constitution 1945, and advice of Unity in Diversity principle is increasingly decreased by the rush of new values that are inconsistent with national identity. This degradation phenomenon of the noble values of Indonesia has influenced the decline of nationalism, patriotism and affection of the country for Indonesian in strengthening the unity of the nation itself.
According to the Indonesian Defence White Paper 2015, another types of Indonesian national security challenges namely “espionage, science and technology development, climate change, natural disaster, provision of food, water and energy, and epidemic”.4 However, the challenges of Indonesian national security remain unsolved. Its need comprehensive strategy to achieve the national security goals based on Indonesian national interest.
1 See Indonesian Defense White Paper 2015, p. 6
2 See “Mengejutkan! Segini Jumlah WNI yang Gabung dan Tewas ISIS di Suriah” cited from suratkabar.id
3 See “Tak bias ditangkap, Cuma bias dipelototi” cited from kantor berita politik
4 See Indonesian Defense White Paper 2015, p. 13-19