FutureDevelopment Aspects OceanEnergy is the world’s most prominent outstanding wellspring of undiscoveredrenewable power source, holding noteworthy potential in decarbonizing futurepower supplies. Currently, more than 10MW of ocean-going devices are introducedinside European waters – a substantial lift from 2009’s 3.5MW of ocean energyproduced. 1In another recent report on Blue Growth by TheDirectorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (DG MARE), ocean energyemployment in Europe alone was estimated to increase from 1,000 in 2010 to apotential 20,000 by 2035. 1OTECPower Plant energy estimation in GW in EuropeIn recent years, large European engineering companies andutilities have ramped up their investments into the ocean energy sector,triggering steady progress. Meanwhile, countries including the USA, Japan,China and Korea have also rapidly begun increasing their investments inpre-commercial energy ocean device testing.
A 2011 report from theInternational Energy Agency, ‘Ocean Energy Systems: International VisionReport’ estimated that given the right market conditions, thedevelopment of 748 GW’s of ocean energy by 2050, could generate160,000 direct jobs by 2030 and save up to 5.2 billion tons of CO2by 2050. 1 The size of the prize for commercializingocean energy is huge. In Europe alone, the ocean energy industry plans todeploy 100GW of production capacity by 2050, meeting 10% of electricity demandwhich is enough to meet the daily electricity needs of 76 million households. 2 Today, European organizations are theperspicuous worldwide pioneers in ocean energy, representing 66% of tidalenergy patents and 44% of wave energy patents. Most ventures created outsideEurope, in Canada and South-East Asia, utilize European innovation.
2This puts EU companies in prime positionto capture a global market estimated to be worth 53€bn annually in 2050. 2Five countries making the most of theirmarine power potential: ØAustraliaAustralia has 34,218 kilometers (21,262 miles) of coastline andis an area identified with some of the world’s best marine power potentialacross its southern coastline.Thetotal wave energy crossing the 25 meter profundity isobath between Gerald tonand the southern tip of Tasmania may be more than 1300 TWh/year, evaluated inover five times the total power necessities for Australia.
It additionally needa large number of rivers and creeks that can be used to harnesshydroelectricity power. 3Currentlyhydroelectricity accounts for 6.5-7% of Australian electricity generation. 3Ø North America Hydropower in North America already provides nearly seven percent of the nation’selectricity, and it holds tremendous potential for expansion. 3Areport by the US Department of Energy revealed that wave and other water powerresources across the US could potentially provide 15% of the nation’selectricity by 2030, with areas such as Hawaii being identified as havingenough energy to generate more than 80 terawatt hours of electricity a year ifdeveloped to their maximum potential. Alaska was also identified as having ahigh potential for wave energy developments, along with some areas of the EastCoast, which have strong tides that could be tapped into to produce energy.
3One projectcurrently being laid out is the Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy project, where 30turbines are being installed along the strait that connects the Long IslandSound with the Atlantic Ocean in the New York Harbor. The turbines are scheduledto be fully installed and will use the flow of the river and tides to generate1,050 kilowatts of electricity – enough to power 9,500 New York homes. 3Ø SouthKorea PikeResearch, which provides rigorous examinations of emerging clean-tech markets,estimates South Korea will be one of the top countries producing tidal streamenergy in the world. 3Thisis likely due to its west and southern coasts being known for high tides andstrong tidal currents. 3Hydropower has already taken off in South Korea considerably, with 40% of thecountry’s energy being generated by it. Since 2001, several large hydro andnuclear plants in South Korea have been run by Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power(KHNP), which is a subsidy of the Korea Electric Power Corporation.
The countryis also taking its expertise in the field abroad, with South Korean companies saidto be in the running for two major hydroelectric construction contracts inGeorgia, the Korea Herald Newspaper reported. 3The UK – taking smallbut important stepsAlongwith South Korea, the UK is being heralded as one of the leaders in wave andtidal power technology, with some of the best and unique testing facilities in the world.Butdespite this there has been added pressure on the government to invest moreinto the industry so it becomes a front runner and doesn’t lag behind.Currently the UK industry is taking small but extremely significant stepstowards harnessing wave and tidal power, thanks to developments such as theSearaser – a cost effective underwater pump which creates power from the swellsand tides of the ocean – and it currently possesses seven out of the eightlarge-scale prototypes deployed anywhere in the world. 3Accordingto the Department for Energy and Climate Change, the UK currently generatesabout 1.3% of its electricity from hydro power. Most of this is generated fromlarge scale schemes in the Scottish Highlands. Recent studies estimate there isa remaining viable hydro potential of 850-1,550MW in the UK.
This representsapproximately 1-2 percent of current UK generating capacity. China – the Asian giantgoes full steam aheadWithone of largest populations in the world China needs a lot of energy. While mostof its energy comes from non-renewable sources, the country is aiming to have20% of its energy come from renewable sources by 2020.
3With18,000km of coastline and 6,500 islands, China has great tidal and wave powerpotential. One project it is working on is Blue Energy, a 120km tidal energygenerating bridge across the Bohai Strait which is estimated to be able togenerate more than 70,000MW of power a year. Also in the Zhejiang area, inTaizhou City, there are an estimated thousand megawatts of energy up for grabs,along the 630 kilometres of coastline. 3Site Selection Criteria for OTEC Plant in BangladeshThe most importantphysical criterion for OTEC site selection is the accessibility of deep coldseawater. For an OTEC plant to generate a significant amount of power, thetemperature difference between the surface and deep ocean water must be atleast 20°C. 4The site of Bangladesh is naturally gifted area toestablish Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) as Bangladesh lies justbeneath the tropic of cancer and on the shore of the Bay of Bengal. Temperaturedifference between the ocean surface and the water at a depth of 1000 metervaries from less than 18 degrees Celsius to more than 24 degrees Celsius.
OTECcan be sited in principle almost anywhere in the tropical ocean-generallybetween Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. 5 It can be seen that for Bay of Bengal the temperaturedifference between surface and sub-surface (1000m) sea water ranges from 20 degreesCelsius to 22 degrees Celsius. So, OTEC technology is expected to be feasiblein the Bay of Bengal which helps to generate electricity. Herewe mainly focus on Cox’s Bazaar where OTEC plant can be constructed.
The annualaverage temperature in Cox’s Bazaar remains at about a maximum of 34.8 °C and aminimum of 16.1 °C.
The political climate supportive of large infrastructuraldevelopment in Cox’s Bazaar is suitable enough which can be considered themajor prerequisite for constructing OTEC plants. Moreover, support of foreigninvestment from the standpoints of taxation, permitting, and emigration (orworking visas) for foreigners in Bangladesh is quite satisfactory and it can beimproved if proper government arrangements are made. 5 Potentialfor OTEC EnergyThere are 38 main landsand islands within 200 nautical miles from coast of the Americas, 23 withinAfrica and 38 within the Indian/Pacific Ocean which have OTEC potential. 4Multi-Industrialapplication of DSWAside from supplyingelectricity, OTEC is also capable of extracting very large volumes of DSW forits operation. DSW is referred to ocean water from a depth of 200 meters orbelow sea level and accounts for 95% of all seawater. It has cold temperature,is abundant in minerals and is pathogen free and stable.
Below are someapplications of DSW: 41) Air conditioningAfter the utilization ofDSW in the OTEC plant, the temperature of the water is still low and cold. Therefore,it can be used as chilling source for air conditioning or in nearbygreenhouses. Such air conditioning system provides a better energy saverproperties compared to the ordinary electrical refrigeration methods.
42) Mineral WaterProductionThe mineral concentrationin DSW is high and is known to possess many medicinal properties. Recentresearch has also shown anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of DSW in mice. Thereforeit is possible to produce high quality mineral water as a by-product of theOTEC plant 4.3) AquacultureDue to its nutritionalvalue, DSW can be used effectively for aquaculture to increase the growth rateof the culture and decrease the disease outbreak. 44) LithiumExtractionOne very common method ofindustrial lithium production is the extraction of lithium-chloride fromseawater. Since DSW is much purer and cleaner than surface seawater, it can beeconomically more suitable for lithium extraction by reducing cleaningintervals. 45) Food,Cosmetics and PharmaceuticalsThe nutritional propertiesof DSW also make it a valuable source for the food, cosmetics andpharmaceutical industries.
In Japan, DSW is used in the production of’Sake’, ‘Tofu’, etc. Some cosmetic products based on DSW has also reached theJapanese market and gained tremendous public favor. 4