Frencharchitecture is very prominent, it`s features relies on finest details,spacious stonework. The French can be admired for diverse kinds of things, for instancetheir fashion, their cuisine, their wine, their arts and artists. However aboveall they have brilliant architecture for instance the Rheims Cathedral at Placedu cardinal Luçon in Franceand the Chateau de Chambord ten miles east of Blois. (Courtenay, 1997, p. 63)The French are also known for their excellent architects. They had one of themost iconic architects Le Corbusier who was the mastermind behind the VillaSavoye. Secondly they have Jean Nouvel who is more of a modern architect and isrecognized for his use of glass, some of his works are the Torre Glòries and the One Central Park which arecontrived with a lot of glass.Grotting’s picture (2005) portrays the TorreGlòries.
Notre Dame Notre Dame is a cathedral constructed inFrance between the 12th to 13th centuries located in theheart of Paris on the Ile De La Cite. Notre Dame is often known to be one ofthe best cathedrals when it comes to French gothic architecture. The gothic erawas very significant in French architecture and in the history of Paris. (uk.
essays,2013). Robinson’s image displays the famous NotreDame. HistoricalbackgroundNotre Dame was previously called the Saint Etienne cathedral in the 12thcentury. It was a substantial basilica constructed with five naves, therewasn’t a lot of information on Saint Etienne however it was extracted in themiddle of the 12th century under the regime of King Louis VII. (Lofaro,2017) It was later replaced by what wenow know as Notre Dame due to Maurice De Sully which was the pope at time. Thefirst stone was set down in 1163 in the latency of Pope Alexandre III. Themonument was completed around 1350.
(Softschools, 2012) ExternalfeaturesThe cathedral stands at 128 meters in lengthand 12 meters wide. The cathedral had two massive towers which are approximately226 feet high and has 387 steps. Its cruciform plan, elevated nave and transeptwere taken from Romanesque architecture from the 11th century.However its pointed arch and ribbed vaulting were rigorously gothic. Notre Damewas one of the first cathedrals to have arched exterior support known as flyingbuttresses which helped with the construction of the high ceiling.
in inclusionto the flying buttresses there are over a dozen piers used to support the massof the cathedral. (Visual arts cork, 2015).The cathedral is also known for itsexternal statues and engravings surrounding the exterior walls. Notre Dame alsohas Christian architecture amongst its external features, it has three portalson its façade. Firstly the portal of the last judgement, which was built in theearly 12th century and was the last portal that was completed,however the cathedral began to weather and was later restored by Viollet le Ducin the 19th century.
The statues on the left side of the door jambrepresent St. Andrew, St. Bartholomew, St. Simon, St. John, St. James and St.Peter. On the trumeau is the statue of ‘Beau Dieu’ also known as the statue ofChrist teaching.
(Pierre, 2015).The lower lintel portraysthe resurrection of the dead and the upper lintel portrays Archangel Michaelweighing their souls. The convicted are on the right hand side beside thedevil, on their way to hell, and the righteous are on the left hand side withChrist on their way to heaven. (Pierre, 2015).
The sculptures on the tympanum coveys the LastJudgment from the Gospel of Matthew and concedes Christ seating on the throneof honor. Pierre’s picture (2015) portrays thesculpture. There’s an angel on hisright holding a spear and the nails of the cross and the angel on left isholding the cross, on either side Mary and John are praying for the dead.Alongside all of this is the archivolt which portrays the heavenly court,including prophets, angels, patriarch’s, doctors of the church, martyrs andvirgins. Underneath the tympanum is the sculpture of hell, conveying the deviltrampling on three accursed souls.
(Pierre, 2015).On the north façade is the left portal, theportal of the virgin. This portal was constructed between the years 1210 to1220, it conveys the death of Mary and her rising to heaven. On the door jambon this portal has full sized statues. The statues on the left consists of EmperorConstantine, Saint Denis holding his head and a staff alongside two otherangels.
The statues on the right consist of St. Stephen, St. Genevieve, andJohn the Baptist, and Pope Sylvester. These statues were damaged in 1973 due tothe French Revolution and was restored in the 19th century byViollet le Duc. Pierre’s picture (2015) portrays the sculpture. The lowerlintel portrays three prophet on the left and three Old Testament kings on theright holding scrolls prophesying Christ.
The upper lintel shows Mary lying onher death bed, surrounded by Jesus and twelve disciples. Two angels arecarrying Mary to heaven. (walwyn, 2010).The archivolts consists of angels, patriarchs,kings and prophets eye witnessing the coronation.
The portal of St. Anne is on the western façade, on the right hand sideand was furnished around 1220 before the other two portals. On the either sideof the throne are angels, on the left is the Bishop of Paris and his officer,and on the right is the King of France. Above the tympanum is the entire heavenlycourt including angels, Kings, prophets and old men of the annihilation.
Thelower lintel portrays the marriage of Joachim and Anne accompanied by themarriage of Mary and Joseph. The upper lintel conveys the coming of Christ toearth, from the declaration to the realization. Thegallery of kings consists of twenty eight statues which portarys each one ofthe kings of judah, who were human ascendants of Mary and Jesus and descendantsof Abraham. The authentic statues were joined in the 13th century.Notre Dame is also very famous for its magnificent rose window which gleamslike jewels over the west door and in the north and south transept, its niche,arcade and lintels.
The south rose window was added around the year 1260. Thesouth rose is 12.9 meters in diameter and has eighty four planes of glass. Thenorth rosw window was installed around 1250 and like the south is also12.9meters in diameter. Abelard’s picture (2010) shows the plan. Interior features The interior consists of a nave arcade, gallery,triforium and clerestory, ambulatories, sexpartite vault, and the crossing.
Inthe nave the transept scarcely surmounts the width of the façade. (Davies, 2007, p. 395). The plan of NotreDame, Paris is documented to have begun in 1163, only a couple of years afterNotre Dame in Loan.
However there is a visible difference between both, due tothe use of Romanesque architecture and the use of gothic architecture. In the navethe large clerestory windows and light portray he nave walls to seem remarkablythin, which create an effect that the nave is weightless. The ceilings aresupported by ribbed vaults, with an immense amount of arches meeting at a pointacross the building. The chapels in the cathedral are all unique and telldiverse biblical stories. (Pierre, 2015)The main materials used in the construction of Notre Dame arelimestone, glass the cathedral is composed of a large amount of glass.
Forinstance the use of glass for the stain rose windows. Wood was also a majorcontribution to the construction of the cathedral. There was also a vast use ofpaint in decorating the cathedral, however the paint did eventually start tofade away. Mortar was also used a lot in the interior due to its flexibility. (Pierre, 2015) Lastly there was anextensive use of iron in the construction of the cathedral.
Iron was used forstrength and support due to the mass and height of the cathedral. Overall NotreDame Cathedral is still one of the most recognized French gothic Cathedral’s inthe world due to its outstanding detail in the portals the windows and thestatues. Pierre’s picture (2015) portraysthe sculpture.
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