Four basic principles of Kanban1. to get the idea about the process  – this means you first understand the processthat is existing. Kanban doesn’t say to change the current process withoutknowing it.2. Agree to small changes – this means that whenever thereis a small change due to Kanban, support it. The reason is, Kanban is a toolthat clears problem or guide you to the success through small changes ratherthan abrupt changes.3.

Respect the current scenario – When one implements Kanbanin the current process, it does not tell you to change the whole process, butto make the small changes in the current process which does not add value tothe process. And it does not tell you to change the steps that adds value tothe process. So, one must respect the current process, roles andresponsibilities of the whole system.4. Encourage all – Since it is a tool of improvement and itinvolves all, ideas must flow from all directions and they must be respected.Ideas can come from any of the team members rather than just the managementteam.

  Six general practices of kanban1.     Visualize the work flow·       Breakdown every step from beginning to the end of the process and create a column orline(lane) for each step.·       Writedown tasks separately on a physical card.·       Differentiatethe types of tasks for easier visualization with the help of the colour codes.·       Work flowsfrom left to do to right done as shown in figure below.

  2.     Limit the work flow·       Do not do such task which cause harm to yourprocess efficiency at a single time. There needs to be a limit, where only aparticular task needs to be done to reduce waste and improve the efficiency.·       Putlimits on columns in which work is being performed.

·       Thegoal of WIP limits are smooth workflow and waste elimination. 3.     Manage Flow·       Improvement shouldalways be based on measurements, so find and apply methods.·       Use the gathered data toadjust your process to maximize flow and efficiency.Using thesesteps, you will be able to identify where your tasks needs to be adjusted, andwhat works best for you and your team. 4.

     Make policies explicit·       The team must form the basic rules on the flowof different items, when and how to note. ·       This needs to be marked on the board. 5.

     Feedback·       For the continuous improvement, meetings must becarried out weekly or at the end of the shift to check whether work flow isgoing as per the flow or not.·       Feedback is necessary as it will indicate ifanything needs the improvement or is going well.  6.     Collaborate for improvement ·       It requires the involvement of all departments,rather than just one.·       It is a team effort.        Rules of kanban by Toyota production systemØ Thereare 6 rules defined by the Toyota production system: -1.     Downstreamprocesses withdraw the items in the exact amount mentioned by Kanban.

2.     Upstreamproduces items in precise amounts and sequences given by Kanban.3.

     Noitems should be moved or produced without kanban.4.     Kanban cards must accompany each and every timewith the parts.5.     Defectsand incorrect amounts should never be sent to the next downstream process.6.     Thenumber of Kanban cards is reduced carefully to minimize inventory and find the problems.Types of kanban cardsØ Thereare two principal types of Kanban cards:1.

     WithdrawalKanban·       Withdrawalkanbans also known as “move cards” are used to signal when a part isready to move from one lane to another lane in the manufacturing areas. Thecard is attached with a prescribed number of parts, which are moved to the workarea that needs them. Once the parts are used, the card is returned as a signalto send the same number of the same part back. An example of withdrawal Kanban cardis shown in figure 2.     ProductionKanban·       A kanban thatcontains a comprehensive list of everything the part requires in order to becompleted is called the production kanban. This includes the parts required,the materials required and the information included on a withdrawal kanban.

Importantly, a production kanban orders the production system to start with theproduction of parts required in the production area. An example of production Kanbancard is shown in figure      Ø Inaddition, other types of Kanban cards that exists are:3.     ExpressKanban·       Express kanbanscome into use when the shortages of parts occur, to indicate the need for moreof a particular part or material so that the manufacturing process does not getstopped and work flows smoothly.

These are also sometimes known as signalkanbans. Essentially, they are used to trigger purchases. 4.

     EmergencyKanban·      Emergencykanbans are used to replace the defective parts or to signal a sudden change inthe amount of product that are needed to be produced. Unlike express kanbans,emergency kanbans are utilized when a part does not function like it issupposed to or when the conditions of production changes. 5.     Through Kanban·       It is a combination of withdrawal and production kanbans, and are usedwhen the two work areas for these kanbans are located close to each other, inorder to speed up production.

For instance, if the storage area for componentsis right next to the place where the product is assembled, having a singlekanban to pull the parts and run them through the production process savestime. 6.     SupplierKanban·       A supplier kanban is for the supplier – that sells materials to themanufacturer and enters the supplier’s kanban system as a representative of themanufacturer. They receive the card with the number of parts or raw materialrequired by the manufacturer.

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