Ferguson, Paulin, Moslein, & Muller, 2005 were examined the effect of Relational governance on the performance of ?nancial partnerships to compare biotechnology manager assessments of their ?nancial and non-?nancial partnerships. They have conducted a structural interview to collect data and the respondents were chief executive, operations or ?nancial of?cers of 79 emerging biotechnology companies and 36 lead investors in Germany, Canada, and France. They found that Relational governance is positively associated with performance. Relational governance was measured by relational norms such as ?exibility, information sharing, solidarity and fairness, and performance was measured by overall effectiveness and partnership bene?ts. To assess the relationship between these variables, they have been followed three main steps, First, the influence of relational governance on partnership efficiency and bene?ts was examined. Second, for the ?nancial corporations, the perceptions of both biotech managers and lead investors were compared.

Third, the biotech manager perceptions of their ?nancial and non-?nancial partnerships were analyzed. From the three assessments of partnerships, relational governance was a signi?cant and strong predictor of the overall effectiveness of the partnership. They have clearly proved the significance of social embeddedness in the economic activities of ?rms in clusters of emerging biotechnology companies. The higher the parties assess the degree of relational governance in biotechnology partnerships, the greater are the perceptions of the overall effectiveness and the derived bene?ts.

Among four dimensions of Relational Governance, Communication (information sharing) was found as the most predictive variable on partnership performance according to Ferguson, Paulin, Moslein, & Muller (2005). Also, they noticed that the financial partnership of biotech managers is to be less relational compared to their non-financial partnerships. Heimeriks & Schreiner, 2015 have proposed an advanced framework by incorporating the relation between the concepts of relational capability, alliance capability, and alliance performance, they suggest that relational qualities act as a mediator between alliance capability and alliance performance while Mohring & Finch (2015) found that contracts allow a project to commence and are an early form of interaction, increasing new relationships or cutting into and modifying established ones they have recognized relational norm as an important dimension in contracting where it largely incorporate incremental innovation and absorb uncertainties of business as well industrial marketing.   According to a survey conducted by Rungsithong, Meyer, & Roath (2017), based on 156 partnership projects between buyers and suppliers in the Thai, they showed the importance of relational and economic attributes on firm performance as a mediate factor.

The major purpose of this study was to explain how characteristics of a partnership effect relational capabilities that in turn enhance ?rm performance. The dependent variable of the study was the performance, which was characterized by two dimensions; operational performances in terms of cost, quality and lead time and strategic performance, and strategic performance focusing on long-term consequences of the project such as the introduction of new product, technologies of markets. Operational performance was measured by the extent to which the buying company experienced process developments, especially in reliability, delivery, and flexibility while relational and economic attributes of a buyer-seller relationship, considered as the independent variable mainly focusing on long-term trust. Two intermediary variables were identified, namely relational capabilities and complementary capabilities which orderly refers to knowledge sharing and the ability to evaluate complementarities in the partner organization. Also, a number of control variables have been adopted to analyze the links between these dimensions.

The study has provided positive relationship under all hypothesis, which means based on the study of by Rungsithong, Meyer, & Roath (2017), inter-organizational trust has a positive relationship with knowledge sharing and complementary capabilities, similarly, relationship-specific assets have a positive relationship with knowledge sharing. Moreover, results suggest that knowledge sharing and complementary capability have the positive relationship with operational performance, also operational performance has the positive association with strategic performance. Finally, all together this study confirms that there is a higher relation between relational quality, alliance capability and alliance performance. Studying 206 samples collected from distributors of house finishing, computer and computer components Liping & Zeng (2017) attempt to extend the understanding and knowledge on the effect of contractual issue inclusiveness and obligation on performance, by mitigating opportunism with the mediated effect of relational norms.

Opportunism was measured using six items scale while solidarity, mutuality, flexibility, role integrity and harmonization of conflict used to measure relational norms. The performance was evaluated using indicators of the market share, profits, distributor’s sales revenue, and sales volume associated with the supplier. Other than that three control variables were included in the study; supplier’s transaction-specific investments, environmental uncertainty, and power. Empirical findings of their study proved that contractual issue inclusiveness is more reflective in enhancing performance than contractual obligatoriness and suggest that the joint influences of contractual issue inclusiveness and contractual obligatoriness are effective in mitigating opportunism but irrelevantly related to performance. Also, relational norms enhance a positive influence of contractual issue inclusiveness on performance and show that relational norms can strengthen the negative effect of contractual obligatoriness on opportunism but there is no significant effect on the relationship between contractual issue inclusiveness and opportunism.

Their findings indicate that the contracts are multidimensional and the effects of each dimension on the channel relationship are different.  


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