Features & TechnologiesThe transportation of crude oil by vessel was originated approximately1850. The first oil tankers were single hull twosail-driven tankers. In the early 1970s a Very Large Crude Carrier(VLCC) may have taken two years to build and in today modest VLCC can be builtin eight to nine months. In this time too, hundredsof crude oil vessels moving around the world without any trouble with the powerof modest technologically improvements.

 The larger size vessels mean the price of shippingthe oil has fallen to roughly 5-10 percent of the price per barrel. Therefore,vessel producers increase the tanker size every year. Usually current ultra-largecrude carrier (ULCC) is designed around 1,300 feet long and capacity of 500,000DWT. ·        Air lubricant systemMitsubishi company designs theirmodest crude oil ships using that air lubricant system. The technology isreduced 13% of fuel consumption by reducing friction between hull and water.Bubbles are generated by shipping and then create a layer of air between theship and the water, reducing drag drastically and increasing speed andefficiency.  ·        Automated crude oil tank cleaningThat technology completely cleaning the sludge fromthe interior of large oil tanks and then washing the crude oil system clearly.

The technology saves the cost of manpower as well as risk of the workers. Crudeoil ships have been introduced the technology in year of 2007.·        Automated Navigation Systemsince 2010, crude oil ships used advanced automaticnavigation system which allows to sail 24 hours a day without manual operation.Especially these are used in VLCC carries.·        Motion detectorsThis technology enables ships to navigate long beachchannels safely. Therefore, this allow ships to arrive to the port with deeperdrafts and heavier load. So, this technology leads to less pollution, lesscongestion and better use of port infrastructure. ·        LR tankersThe specific feature of Long Range (LR) class oiltanker is that ships carry both crude oil and refined products.

After 2000large ships (LR) demand has been increased because these type ships can accesslargest port and take more benefits through that competitive advantage.  The speed of the crude oil ship has beengradually increased due to the new technologies and high power of engines withthe time. In 2000 VLCC average speed was 14.5 and in today it is around 18.00. Prices and Lifetime Prices of crude vessel is directly depending on size,capacity, other features as well as technologies which used in the vessel.

 The table shows that the market price of brandedvessels in 1985 & 2005. which are basically correlated size (DWT)According to the worldwide vesseldata in 2005, oil tankers average lifetime was 10 years.  31.

6% ofthem were under 4 years and 14.3% were over 20 years old.The table shows that the lifetime of large size ofcrude oil ships. But in today ship manufacturers expect more than 35 years lifetime from crude oil ships because now they use corrosion resistant steel forhull and also tanker compartments.

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