Extract 1 was written by an Indian historianman called Tapan Raychaudhuri who studied in Bengal but lectured in England,this extract was written in 1996 and is an argument against the British empire.This is a nationalistic and post- colonial extract this means within thisextract Tapan is discussing the basis of the human consequences of externalcontrol and economic exploitation of the Indians and their land it alsoanalyses the social, political and cultural regime of the colonies which couldbe biased. In this extract Tapan Raychaudhuriexpresses his views that the title ‘Indian Munity’ was inaccurate, he believesthis because everyone in the country supported the rebellion. The title ‘IndianMunity’ has resulted from the ‘expressed accumulation of anger’ by parts of thepopulation from north and central India however this was false because manyIndians supported the British during the rebellion such as the richer Indiansfor example rich land owners and princes this was because they wanted to be ableto keep their land that they have accumulated through the British rules and stillhave influences within the politics. Another supporter of rebellion was partsof army they supported the rebellion due to various reasons such as theirreligious beliefs (Robinson, 1857)stated within aletter which was wrote by Francis Horsby Robinson in 1857, this letter statedthat many people within the army who were Hindus were stopped from ‘honouringthe colours with incense and garlands’ this implies they were stopped fromundertaking there religious worshipping. Tapan Raychaudhuri had a negativeview of the rebellion we can tell this is because he expresses that the wholepopulation was nationalistic and that the British bayed for bloody revenge weknow this because the British used cow and pig bones/fat within their guns whichwas against the religion of many soldiers with the East Indian Company’s armywhich left the many soldiers disgruntled. Another reason we can tell that hisview of the rebellion was negative is because he said “the rebellion created alegacy of racial hatred” which resulted in the Indians and British beingseparated however we know this is not true because the majority of Indianwasn’t affected by this as previously stated many Indians actually supportedthe British.
This extract tells me that therebellion was a bad thing which everyone was involved in and that it caused alot of hatred and separation between the Indians and the British. The pointsstated above show evidence that religion was a main factor in why the Indiansand British mutinied. Extract 2 was written by an Englishhistorian and teacher called D.C.
Somervell who taught in three well knowEnglish public schools, the attract was adapted from the ‘The British Empire’which was written by D.C. Somervell in 1934 but was originally published in1930. The school of thought of this extract is structuralism which means D.C.Somervell is discussing his view of the of the empire from ‘bottom up’ and hisview of the structure between the colonies and metropole (top of the empire,the connecting point is London). This extract is also a whigish interpretation whichis an interpretation that presents the past as an inevitable progressiontowards ever greater liberal and enlighten cumulating in modern forms ofliberal democracy and constitutional monarchy.
This extract also has aEurocentric point of view which is very British and wants the whole world to beBritish. The point of this extract is to explainthe attitudes towards the British empire and portrays a positive view of theattitude because it shows aspects that the empire was a good thing. One reasonwe can tell this is a positive point of view as D.C. Somervell states ‘about afifth of them owe their existence to British rule’ this is implying that afifth of Western Europe is here today because of what the British empireaccomplished, we know this is true because Britain began trading between thesecountries which enabled them to be introduced to enterprise. Another reason we know D.C.
Somervell had apositive view of the British empire as he said, “the British in Indian haveexercised so profound an influence on the country that is hard to realise thesmallness of their numbers” which suggests that he believes that the Britishempire managed to help India to improve, we know the British empire helpedIndia to improve as they provided them with new technology and madeimprovements to the conditions of the human rights in India. However D.C.
Somervell wrote ‘Indiais anything but a White Man’s home’ stating that once a white man has fulfilledhis duties over in India they would return home we know that this informationis incorrect because some British settled in India we know this because asmentioned previously the British that did live in India had a great influenceon improving India. This extract tells me that theBritish empire had a positive influence on India and many Western Europeancountries and the points stated about support this because they helped toimprove India and Western Europe by introducing new laws, technology andtrading resulting in the countries being able to expand their population.In my opinion both extracts showevidence of factual and incorrect information on the British rule in the Empirefrom 1857-1890 and neither one of the extracts are more convincing in relationto the British rule in the empire because they both written sometime after theevent so this means the extracts are based on researcher and the writer’sopinion which has resulted in them getting some of the evidence and informationwrong. However, I do believe each writer shows and some good information tosupport the opinion of the British rule in the Empire they have written about.There are various reasons whyBritain had/wanted an empire such as: (Yousaf, 2014)power because Britain wanted to be ableto have power over the whole of the world and by having and empire it meantthat Britain was able to have everything they wanted even creating their ownrights, military as the empire was growing rapidly they need more men to fightfor them but this would cost too much which would get in the way of themcapturing more land so they decided to capture slaves and get them to fight,economy as have a great economy helped as Britain was able to create tradingroutes that no other countries had access to and finally financial reasonswhich was the main reason why everyone wanted an empire as it could enable youto take over and take control of things which is what Britain wanted to do. Thomas Babington Macaulay(1800-1859) who was a poet wrote a speech on the India bill of 1833 andexpresses his view of the achievements and goals of the British Empire in theEast. Macaulay’s speech supports the British empire by giving a positive viewof the Indians, recognising the abuse of power, recognising how the governingof India benefits the British and mentioning about spreading civilisation,trade with civilised men and education. Some evidence of this from Macaulay’sspeech is that he said, “to the great trading nation, to the greatmanufacturing nation” which shows the supportive factors of the British empirebecause Britain introduced trading which then enabled countries to be able to manufacturebetter things in a bigger quantity as they were getting sold.
He also mentionsabout how spreading of the European civilisation and how that the govern ofIndia was better for Britain in his words he said, “far better for us that thepeople of India were well governed and independent of us”. On the other hand,Thomas Babington Macaulay’s speech criticises the British Empire as he mentionsabout how lots of people died, refers to the Indians as savages, is predictingarguments and is demeaning. We know this because he said, “ruling savages wouldindeed be a foolish wisdom” this implies that if Britain was to try and ruleIndia it would be a foolish mistake which inevitable cost them a great amountof money and he also states.Overall Thomas Babington Macaulay’sspeech in my opinion supports the British empire more than it criticises it ashe was able identify the positives that the British empire had on India and education,but he was also able to identify and explain what the British Empire was doingwrong. References Macaulay, T. B. (2017, November).
Speech in Parliament on the Goverment of India Bill, 10 July 1833. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Raychaudhuri, T. (1996). British Rule in India: an assessment.
Robinson, F. H. (1857). North West Provinces on attitudes to the British Goverment in India. Somervell, D.
(1934). The British Empire. Yousaf, S. (2014, June 13). Why did Britian want an Empire? Retrieved from Prezi: https://prezi.com/fou6qaadjydv/why-did-britian-want-an-empire/