The Gettysburg Address Abraham Lincoln SPAM: Speaker: Abraham Lincoln Purpose: To honor those who died in the Civil War and especially those at the battle of Gettysburg Audience: Americans Medium: Outside Venue 3 Appeals of Rhetoric: Logos: Appeal to logic •“We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. ” •It is logical that it is “fitting and proper” that the battleground cemetery be dedicated to the soldiers who gave their lives at the battleground.
Pathos: Appeal to the audience’s emotion •In the Gettysburg Address, Abraham Lincoln uses “we” instead of “I” when speaking. This appeals to the audience’s emotion because Lincoln is including the audience in the way he feels about the Civil War and the people who are fighting, making the audience believe that they feel the same way that he does. Ethos: Appeal to the speaker’s credibility •When the Gettysburg Address was given, Abraham Lincoln was the President of the United States. He was President during the duration of the war.
This makes him credible because he knows why the war is taking place and the goal of freedom that is being obtained. His beliefs are the reason that the war is going on. Rhetorical Devices: Mythos: Appeal to tradition •“our fathers brought forth upon this continent a new nation: conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. ” •“these honored dead” •These are examples of mythos because they are relating to the past and how things have always been. •Mythos is used to make the audience think that violating tradition is not appropriate.
Allusion: a reference to a work of literature, or to a person, place, or event outside of literature, with which a writer to speaker expects an audience to be familiar. •“Four score and seven years ago” is an allusion to the American Revolution. •The purpose of the allusion is to link the image of freedom from the American Revolution to the freedom of all Americans as the purpose of the Civil War. Anaphora and Epistrophe •“We cannot dedicate… we cannot consecrate… we cannot hallow this ground. This is an example of an anaphora where “we cannot” is repeated at the beginning of each phrase. •“government of the people, by the people, for the people” This is an example of an epistrophe because “the people” is repeated at the end of each phrase. •The purpose of using an anaphora and an epistrophe is to establish a rhythm which produces a strong emotional effect. Personification: a metaphor in which either an inanimate object or an abstract concept is described as being endowed with human attributes, powers, or feelings. “that nation might live” this is an example of personification, a nation given life. •Personification is used to give vivid images to the audience so that they are able to relate. Asyndeton: the deliberate omission of conjunctions between a series of related clauses, phrases, or words. •“government of the people, by the people, for the people” is an example of an asyndeton because there are no conjunctions used where there are suppose to be conjunctions. •The purpose of using an asyndeton is to produce a hurried rhythm and an emotional reaction.