Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Natalie Maxwell, Robert Sharp, Samarra Spears Dr. Neil Stafford PSYC 540: Research Methodology December 12, 2010 Outline: Natalie- Post-traumatic stress disorders following disasters: a systematic review Natalie-The epidemiology of post-traumatic stress disorders after disasters Samarra- Samarra- Robert- Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Post-traumatic stress disorders following disasters: a systematic review Summarize This article is about post-traumatic stress disorders.
Post-traumatic stress disorders is probably the most commonly studied post-disaster psychiatric disorder. This review aimed to systematically assess the evidence about post-traumatic following exposure to disasters (Neria, Nandi, & Galea, 2007). Comprehensiveness The research is comprehensive because of the data that was used in the research starting from 1980 until it was terminated in 2007. Design and the Methods A systematic search was performed. Eligible studies for this review included reports based on the DSM criteria of PTSD symptoms (Neria, Nandi, & Galea, 2007).
The time-frame for inclusion of reports in this review is from 1980 (when PTSD was first introduced in DSM-III) and February 2007 is when the literature search for this examination was terminated (Neria, Nandi, and Galea, 2007). Method of Analysis Neria, Nandi, & Galea (2007) identified 284 reports of PTSD following disasters published in peer-reviewed journals since 1980. Neria, Nandi, & Galea (2007) categorized them according to the following classification: (1) human-made disasters (n=90), (2) technological disasters (n=65), and (3) natural disasters (n=116). Since some studies reported on findings from mixed samples (e. . survivors of flooding and chemical contamination) we grouped these studies together (n=13) (Neria, Nandi, & Galea, 2007). Major Findings The major finding of this article was that there were different reports. “Although many reports of rates of post disaster PTSD can use the term ‘incidence’ rather than ‘prevalence’ due to the fact that in most cases the exposure duration was brief and limited in time, few studies were designed to ensure that the assessment of incidence was carried out among persons without previous PSTD” (Neria, Nandi, & Galea, 2007). Limitations
There were a review that was build on and to update old work and to review new evidence on PTSD. Several decisions made in the conduct of this review areas where disasters occur have enabled mental and public health researchers, around the globe, to examine various aspects of the associations between exposure to disasters and PTSD (Neria, Nandi, & Galea, 2007). The epidemiology of post-traumatic stress disorders after disasters Summarize This article is about disasters that are traumatic events that are experienced by many people and may results in a wide range of mental and physical health consequences (Galea, Nandi, & Vlahov, 2004).
Comprehensiveness Galea, Nandi, & Vlahov (2004) considered both studies that were epidemiologically sound and studies that may have included biases or may have been poorly designed. Design and Methods The study of the course of PTSD is complicated both by the relatively small of longitudinal studies that have been designed to test the course of PTSD and by inconsistent assessment in the studies that have documented the course of PTSD (Galea, Nandi, & Vlahov 2004).
Method of Analysis Galea, Nandi, & Vlahov (2004) evaluated the studies of epidemiology of PTSD after disasters, that the following methodological issues must be considered: (1) the definition and assessment of exposure; (2) the comparability of PTSD assessments across studies; (3) the assessment of PTSD prevalence and incidence; and (4) the cross-disaster comparability of correlates and course. Major Findings
Galea, Nandi, & Vlahov (2004) stated that, “On the Epidemiologic Reviews website (http://epirev. oupjournals. org/), we present findings from human-made/technological disasters (web table 2) and natural disasters (web table 3) separately. Web table 4 is a summary table that presents, for easy reference, findings on the prevalence and course of PTSD from studies that presented data on these 2 parameters”. Limitations
Our goal was to carry out a systematic review of the evidence regarding PTSD after disasters that might suggest a direction for research and intervention (Galea, Nandi, & Vlahov, 2004). Reference Galea, S. , Nandi, A. , & Vlahov, D. (2004). The epidemiology of post-traumatic stress disorder after disasters. Epidemiol Rev (July 2005) 27 (1): 78-91. Neria, Y. , Nandi, A. , & Galea, S. (2007). Post-traumatic stress disorders: a systematic review. Cambridge University Press: New York