In the diagram, Plato gives a discussion of what he thinks is justice and he talks about a Just person. This is a lecture where he compares these theories in political views and psychological views. He wrote a book in the republic where he talks about harmony by applying to a pure person who is justice and with logical reason. The ideas and arguments of Plato is on the social settings of an ideal republic. Since Socrates was his mentor, he uses his discussions to help support his discussion. The idea of the Republic is to draw an analogy between the operation of society as a whole and the life of any individual human being.

He draws this into three separate parts in which will be discussed in depth. Plato compares the physical body to the land, buildings, and other material resources of a city, Plato demonstrates that every human beings soul includes three parts. Plato said that one part of us thinks, another part of our soul does things, and another part of our soul desires things. He states that we cannot do all these with just one part of our soul, or as a whole soul. Plato discuss that the human soul is divided into three parts, reason, desire, and emotion. The rational soul is the mind or intellect.

It is the thinking portion within each of us, which figures out what is real and what is not. It judges what is true and what is false, and makes the rational decisions based on what will be better for itself and others. The appetitive soul or the emotional or desire is the portion of each of us that wants and feels many things. We have to resist many of out appetites in order to achieve at least some degree of self-control. This is where it really depends on a person’s ability to control our desires. Sometimes our desires can blind our rational part which makes us choose wrong decisions.

Finally, the spirited soul is our will part. It is the portion that takes action. Its function is to carry out the reasons of the rational soul in real life, courageously doing whatever the mind has determined to be best. Plato discusses that these 3 parts of the soul are supposed to be parallel to the 3 classes in the ideal city: the money making, productive class, the auxiliary or military class, and the ruling class, or what many ancient philosophers refer to as the guardians. The diagram which is provided would explain this as gold, silver, and iron and bronze.

Plato believes that membership in the guardian classes should only be based on their education, philosophy, and the possession of appropriate skills, or virtues, Plato presumed that children of guardians would typically be the offspring of those who presently held similar positions of honor and class. If the people express any dissatisfaction with the roles to which they are assigned, they would be considered the useful falsehood that human beings (like the metals gold, silver, and bronze) possess different natures that fit each of them to a particular part of the society as a whole.

The ruling class or guardians would be compared to gold because they are the most valuable. The common people such as farmers and craftsmen were compared to iron and bronze because they are strong, hard workers. This explanation can also be used as a method of social control, by encouraging ordinary people to accept their position at the bottom of the heap, and that they are to be governed by the higher classes. Having developed a general description of the structure of an ideal society, Plato believed that each class in the society has to perform certain functions.

Each class must work together for the common good in order for the city to thrive and succeed. All this showed the need for a society to develop significant social qualities, or virtues. Since the rulers or guardians are responsible for making decisions from which the entire city will be governed, they must have the virtue of wisdom. The virtue of wisdom is the ability to comprehend reality and to make the best judgments about it. Soldiers, who defend of the city against enemies, on the other hand, need the virtue of courage. They must have ability to carry out their orders in the face of danger without thinking about personal risk.

The rest of the people in the city must follow its leaders, instead of pursuing their selfish, private interests. They must obey the laws in a peaceful, orderly, and civil manner in order to keep the local communities together. This means that they must exhibit the virtue of moderation. The common people have to resist many of their personal desires, to benefit the whole city. A ruler who cares about his own desires rather than his subjects needs is not virtuous. Second, a person in the military, who is supposed to be courageous, may desert his fellow troops in fear.

Third, many common people commit crimes, and create conflict within the community. Plato’s definition of justice means harmony in a person. This person would be one with a spirited part of the would preserve through pleasures and pains in order to carry out the rational parts’ intentions on what should be feared and what should not. This ability would be courage. The pattern of parallel virtues between the city and the soul continues as a person’s reason is most able to make decisions about what is advantageous for each part and for the whole would when it has the knowledge associated with wisdom.

The desire part should be kept in a state of moderation by the rational part of the so that the desire and rational part are agreeable. Therefore justice is similar to how the city is. As long as the person keeps harmony between all parts, this is the Just person In the diagram, Plato gives a discussion of what he thinks is justice and he talks about a Just person. This is a lecture where he compares these theories in political views and psychological views. He wrote a book in the republic where he talks about harmony by applying to a pure person who is justice and with logical reason.

The ideas and arguments of Plato is on the social settings of an ideal republic. Since Socrates was his mentor, he uses his discussions to help support his discussion. The idea of the Republic is to draw an analogy between the operation of society as a whole and the life of any individual human being. He draws this into three separate parts in which will be discussed in depth. Acceptance and pursuit of one thing are opposite to rejection and avoidance of that same thing. Appetite is willing and wishing for a thing are acceptance and pursuit of that thing.

Refusal, unwillingness, and non-appetite are rejection and avoidance of that thing. For example, sometimes we both have an appetite to drink and refuse to drink. Therefore, since these states are opposites, they cannot belong to the same part of the soul, they must belong to different aspects of the soul. A person who is harmonized must balance these aspects out. The rational soul is the mind or intellect. It is the thinking portion within each of us, which figures out what is real and what is not. It judges what is true and what is false, and makes the rational decisions based on what will be better for itself and others.

The appetitive soul or the emotional or desire is the portion of each of us that wants and feels many things. We have to resist many of out appetites in order to achieve at least some degree of self-control. This is where it really depends on a person’s ability to control our desires. Sometimes our desires can blind our rational part which makes us choose wrong decisions. Finally, the spirited soul is our will part. It is the portion that takes action. Its function is to carry out the reasons of the rational soul in real life, courageously doing whatever the mind has determined to be best.

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