Perception is a remarkable trait. Consider human vision, a two-dimensional array of light appears on the retina, which houses the visual receptors. Instead of seeing a random collection of color dots, people immediately experience a rich, coherent, veridical, three-dimensional perception of an object, person, or event Perhaps the most astounding fact is that this occurs immediately, mostly outside of conscious awareness (Robinson-Riegler& Robinson-Riegler, 2008).
Perception and attention are two independent mechanisms relevant to one another.Attention is the state of focused awareness on a division of available perceptual information. This paper will explain the concept of perception, break down the perceptual organizational process, define the concept of attention, analyze the nature of the attention process and explain the relationship between perception and attention. Define the concept of perception The term perception refers to the complete process of apprehending objects and events in the community. Perception is a set of processes that organize information in the sensory image and interprets that information from experiences of the external world.
Perception commonly focuses on the apprehension of objects or events, opposed to focusing on sensation or sensory process. Perception is process of obtaining sensory information about the world of people, things, and events. Perception is acquired through an independent sensory receptor that evaluates stimulation into simple sensations and by associating those sensations into perceptual structures; the brain mirrors the environment (Perception, 2004). Perception is the next stage, in which an internal representation of an object is formed and a perception of the external stimulus is developed.The representation provides a description of the perceiver’s external environment.
The visual process provides estimates of an object’s likely size, shape, movement, distance, and orientation (Gerrig, Zimbardo, 2002). Perception is considered to be a person’s primary source of knowledge. The world is not shown to people in conceptual form; rather, people impose such a form on what is received, by categorization or conceptualization (Perception, 2007). As a result of perceiving, individuals arrive at a conclusion about a person, place, or thing. Breakdown of perception organizationThe breakdown of perception organization has to do with how individuals tell the difference in an organized pattern, other than the divided pieces. The Gestalt psychologist puts this idea in understanding words, “the whole is different from the parts” (Plhakova, 2008 p. 109).
Gestalt means, “a structure, configuration, or pattern of physical, biological, or psychological phenomena so integrated as to constitute a functional unit with properties not derivable by summation of its parts” (Merriam, 2010). The founder and the viewpoint of Gestalt came from psychologist Max Wertheimer.Dr. Wertheimer as well as others noted that the speed series of perceptual occurrence, like in a row of sparkling lights, develop a hallucination of movement without any motion (Plhakava, 2008). Many other theorists had the understanding that perception organization illustrates inborn traits of the brain; however, this is not truth. Perception and the brain draw a connection between previous perception and a range of cognitive domain of discovery, induction, and causal reasoning.
One can question superficial perception and its existence.However, this does not equal the strong resemblance of reality (Palmer & Brooks, 2008). The perception organization process changes impression into comprehending objects in the brain. When one views a pattern, it requires comprehension of the experience.
This shows that a union guide is not a bottom-up process from pictures to objects. The perception organization is a highly combination process for reflection that seeks the best fitting focus. The Gestalt way of thinking is generally acceptedin cognitive science and neuroscience (Plhakova, 2008).This means that Gestalt is fitting to the perception organization process.
The example focuses on objects that include the depth of a set of stimulus elements perceived as one object, and visual regularity as a component in the perception organization process. Other components are depth effect, time effect, and anti-regularity (Plhakova, 2008). Define the concept of attention Attention is the state of focused awareness on a division of available perceptual information. It is a system of the brain that is separate from the data processing system.
Attention is usually considered to have at least three aspects: orienting, filtering, and searching (Ward, 2008). These aspects can be focused on a single information source or divided among several sources. Each of these aspects has specific properties of which complete operations on systems that complete operations on specific inputs even when attention is in another place. The attention method is different from any other sensory and motor systems. The Attention structure works together with other parts of the brain, but maintains its own identity. Individuals’ conscious attention is selective.
Selective attention occurs the moment one focus his or her awareness on a limited segment of all they are able of experiencing. Attention is an important feature because it connects the mental level of description processes used in cognitive science with the anatomical in detail level common in neuroscience (Peterson &Postner, 1990). Analyze the nature of the attention process Individuals contemplate how attention influences people in different situations. A person cannot participate in a conversation with a person in a car or on a cell phone while driving and have undivided attention on the road.This type of multi-tasking is done by people all the time. Attention is cognitive process of selectively concentration and limited capacity dedicated to watching inner and outer events. Some processes that permits people to operate these potent cognitive performances on data that the conscious hold in the working memory (Robinson-Riegler, p. 120, 2008).
Robinson-Riegler, (2008) suggest that attention has restrictions, and that an individual cannot possibly process everything that is seen or heard. People have times when remembering everything of an incident that other states or a person hear or seen.If people are not focusing on what others or self is doing, looking at the surrounding and not focusing attention to what other or self done, then the results will probably not be good. Attention considered flexible in ways that people can change from the initial methods of attention (processing the physical qualities of new stimuli) (Robinson-Riegler, p. 6, 2008).
Every person has a managing system of how he or she will process incoming data in ways that he or she can decide what information to process.Divide attention and selective attention are two types of attention. In divided attention Robinson-Riegler, (2008) explain as jobs that include the processing of numerous inputs, where selective attention consist of a choice of input at the cost of others. The key objective of divided attention is for a person to multi-task. An example is a person doing more than one thing at a time such as cooking, talking on the phone, and cleaning up the residue left behind or cleaning behind children. In selective attention includes keeping an individual focused from distractions.For example, a person reading and cannot concentrate because of noise in the background.
The person knows he or she needs to comprehend what the reading is about, so therefore discover a way to ignore the noise. Attention is significant for everyone to understand; when individuals have, an understanding of how he or she will handle attention span it becomes simple to function daily. Roughly stating, attention includes the course of content or context done, physically and psychologically, for focusing on stimuli of new information (Robinson-Riegler, 2008).Relationship between Perception and Attention Perception and attention are two independent mechanisms relevant to one another. Perceptual levels are required to initiate the process of attention.
Research regarding selective attention, shows that there is a two level process involving perception and attention (Caparos&Linnell, 2010). According to the selective attention view, visual attention to a target location first involves a perceptual level of selection that blocks distracters from being perceptually processed (Caparos&Linnell, 2010).The second selection in the two level models occurs post perceptually, as stated by Caparos&Linnell (2010). The post perceptual level allows distracter stimuli that have been perceived to be obstructed from reaching the higher levels of process that aid in awareness and response selection. For example, if an individual was driving and a child ran out, unexpectedly, in front of the car, attention would be guided to the child and not the road. Perception of the child directed attention to the important event taking place.Little or no attention is given to items or details that are filtered out as unimportant on the perceptual level. Research regarding this view, produced the following results: (1) the spatial profile of perceptual resources is shaped like a Mexican hat;(2) increasing perceptual load causes an increase in the spatial focus on perceptual resources; (3) increasing cognitive load causes a decrease in the spatial focus on perceptual resources; and (4) decreasing working memory span reduces post perceptual selection (Caparos&Linnell, 2010).
Caparos and Linnell (2010) states that these discoveries are in agreement with the dual-control model of selective attention, which proposes that the focus of perceptual resources and what is seen is modulated not only by perceptual but also by cognitive control mechanisms. Conclusion Perception and attention may have independent functions but perception relies on attention in order to effectively complete its processes. Perception is a set of processes that organize information in the sensory image and interprets that information from experiences of the external world.Perception commonly focuses on the apprehension of objects or events while attention is a system of the brain that is separate from the data processing system Attention is normally considered to have no less than three aspects: orienting, filtering, and searching (Ward, 2008).
Perception and attention varies from person to person, what one person deems relevant another person may not find important at all. A group of people may witness the exact same thing but when questioned about the incident each person will tell the story a different way.ReferencesCaparos, S. , &Linnell, K.
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