Leadership is one of the most salient aspects of the organizational context. However, defining leadership has been challenging. In reviewing the leadership literature Stogdill argued that “there are almost as many definitions of leadership as there are persons who have attempted to define the concept” (Stogdill, 1974, p.
259). Even though leadership is a term that is commonly used, defining leadership in specific terms can prove difficult likely leading to such a large number of definitions.Despite the multitude of leadership definitions, Zaccaro and Klimoski (2001) argued there are several common elements that transcend the many available definitions. Specifically, leadership involves a) processes and proximal outcomes that contribute to the organizational objectives, b) the application of non-routine influence, and c) is contextually defined and caused. Proximal outcomes that leaders could facilitate in the pursuit of achieving organizational objectives could include developing organizational commitment among subordinates.Non-routine influence implies that leaders must to have discretion in their actions and that their behavior should differ from influence provided through organizational routines.
Finally, leadership needs to be considered with respect to the context in which it is occurring. One example is examining how leadership changes across levels of the organization. More broadly, leadership refers to organizing collective effort in the pursuit of solving problems facing the group (Kaiser, Hogan, & Craig, 2008).Thus, leadership includes social problem solving (Mumford, 1986; Mumford, Zaccaro, Harding, Jacobs, & Fleishman, 2000) and setting direction in social domains (Jacobs & Jaques, 1987), often to achieve collective action or organizational adaptation (Mumford et al. , 2000; Yukl, 2006). Overall, it is important to note that leadership necessitates the presence of followers and it is inherently discretionary (Jacobs & Jaques, 1990)—without people to lead or the element of choice, leadership cannot truly be exerted.For a more thorough of comparisons between definitions of leadership as well as a summary of different styles of leadership please refer to reviews by Gary A.
Yukl – Yukl (2006), Avolio, Sosik, Jung, and Berson (2003), Avolio, Walumbwa, and Weber (in press), and Den Hartog and Koopman (2002).  Do Leaders Matter? In the past, some researchers have argued that the actual influence of leaders on organizational outcomes is overrated and romanticized as a result of biased attributions about leaders (Meindl & Ehrlich, 1987).Despite these assertions however, it is largely recognized and accepted by practitioners and researchers that leadership is important, and research supports the notion that leaders do contribute to key organizational outcomes (Day & Lord, 1988; Kaiser, Hogan, & Craig, 2008). Identifying the relationship between leadership and organizational outcomes often becomes more difficult because of the manner in which leadership performance is often measured and that organizational outcomes are rarely accounted for (Kaiser et al. , 2008).  Leadership PerformanceThe criterion space with regard to leadership has been muddied by varying conceptualizations and operationalizations of leadership outcomes. Many distinct constructs are often lumped together under the umbrella of leadership performance, including outcomes such as leader effectiveness, leader advancement, and leader emergence (Kaiser et al.
, 2008). While these constructs may be related, they are different outcomes and their inclusion should depend on the applied/research focus. As in discussions of performance more broadly (discussed in more detail below), it is important to distinguish between performance and effectiveness.That is, performance reflects behavior, while effectiveness implies the assessment of actual organizational outcomes (see Campbell, 1990 for a more detailed discussion).
Specifically, it is important to delineate the particular behaviors expected to contribute to key organizational outcomes, versus the actual organizational outcomes. Outcomes may be subject to external factors beyond the control of the leader making it difficult to determine exactly what is driving the particular outcome of interest.This is a problem in the leadership domain as leadership performance may be used to refer to the career success of the individual leader, performance of the group or organization, or even leader emergence.
Each of these measures can be considered conceptually distinct, however. Leadership effectiveness refers to the ability to influence others and achieve collective goals (Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhardt, 2002). Some advocate leadership success should be based on the effectiveness of the team, group, or organization (Hogan, Curphy, & Hogan, 1994).However, leadership effectiveness is more often based on the perceptions of subordinates, peers, or supervisors (Judge et al.
, 2002). Alternatively, leadership emergence addresses whether an individual is perceived as the leader or being “leaderlike” (Hogan et al. , 1994; Judge et al. , 2002).
Emergence involves distinguishing between leaders and non-leaders and making comparisons. Many studies rely on peer rankings or ratings to determine who emerges as a leader in a given situation. Several stable personality traits have been associated with leadership outcomes.For instance, extraversion and openness to experience were positively associated with leader effectiveness, while neuroticism was negatively related to leader effectiveness (Judge et al.
, 2002). In terms of leader emergence, Judge, Bono, Ilies, and Gerhardt (2002) also found that extraversion, consciousness, and openness to experience were positively related to leader emergence. The relationships between personality and these leader outcomes were stronger for leader emergence than for effectiveness.
Recent theoretical developments have also shown the efficacy of the leader attribute pattern approach in examining leader attribute and performance relationships. Another related concept is leadership advancement, which involves the attainment of leadership roles over a career span. Early longitudinal research using assessment center data suggested that factors such as interpersonal, cognitive, and administrative skills were related to leader advancement (Bray, Campbell, & Grant, 1974; Howard & Bray, 1988). edit] Distinguishing performance from effectiveness While overlap exists among these constructs, some distinctions should also be made (Lord, De Vader, & Alliger, 1986).
Similar to definitions of job performance, it is important to distinguish between performance and effectiveness (Campbell, 1990; Campbell, McCloy, Oppler, & Sager, 1993). Job performance refers to the expected contributions of behavior to organizational goal accomplishment (Motowidlo, 2003).On the other hand, job effectiveness refers the evaluation of the results of such performance (Campbell, 1990; Campbell, McCloy, Oppler, & Sager, 1993). Effectiveness can be influenced by a variety of external factors, outside of one’s immediate control (Campbell et al. , 1993). As such, it may not be accurate to attribute the responsibility of some measures of effectiveness (e.
g. , total revenue) to an individual’s leadership capabilities, because it neglects to consider other external factors, such as the current economic state.Thus, when assessing performance, it is more appropriate to examine elements within the leader’s control, such as specific behaviors that facilitate collective action and goal achievement. Evaluating leadership in such a manner is important for more accurately identifying predictors of leader performance; similarly researchers need to more carefully address the relationship of those behaviors with effectiveness measures in order to more clearly establish the importance of leadership to organizational outcomes (Kaiser et al. , 2008).In comparison to effectiveness or emergence measures, measuring performance or behavior allows for an explicit consideration of those behaviors that would be expected to contribute to organizational outcomes without confounding measurement with the inclusion of factors outside of the leader’s control as is the case with effectiveness measures. Not surprisingly, in developing a taxonomy of job performance, Campbell (1990) identified two factors related to leadership: supervision, or influencing the performance of supervisees, and management, or organizing people and resources for accomplishing unit work.
He suggested that a variety of behaviors may fall under these broad categories. Research in the leadership domain has proven useful in identifying some of these more specific behaviors.  Functional leadership theory Functional leadership theory (Hackman & Walton, 1986; McGrath, 1962) is a particularly useful theory for addressing specific leader behaviors expected to contribute to organizational or unit effectiveness.This theory posits that the leader’s main job is to see that whatever is necessary to group needs is taken care of; thus, a leader can be said to have done their job well when they have contributed to group effectiveness and cohesion (Fleishman et al. , 1991; Hackman & Wageman, 2005; Hackman & Walton, 1986). While functional leadership theory has most often been applied to team leadership (Zaccaro, Rittman, & Marks, 2001), it has also been effectively applied to broader organizational leadership as well (Zaccaro, 2001).In summarizing literature on functional leadership (see Kozlowski et al.
(1996), Zaccaro et al. (2001), Hackman and Walton (1986), Hackman & Wageman (2005), Morgeson (2005)), Klein, Zeigert, Knight, and Xiao (2006) observed five broad functions a leader provides when promoting unit effectiveness. These functions include: (1) environmental monitoring, (2) organizing subordinate activities, (3) teaching and coaching subordinates, (4) motivating others, and (5) intervening actively in the group’s work.
A variety of leadership behaviors are expected to facilitate these functions.In initial work identifying leader behavior, Fleishman (Fleishman, 1953) observed that subordinates perceived their supervisors’ behavior in terms of two broad categories referred to as consideration and initiating structure. Consideration includes behavior involved in fostering effective relationships. Examples of such behavior would include showing concern for a subordinate or acting in a supportive manner towards others.
Initiating structure involves the actions of the leader focused specifically on task accomplishment.This could include role clarification, setting performance standards, and holding subordinates accountable to those standards.  Taxonomy of leader behavior More recently, Fleishman et al. (1991) examined previous leader behavior classifications to develop a conceptually based taxonomy describing the functional behavior requirements for effective leadership. Four broad superordinate dimensions of behavior were identified: (1) information search and structuring, (2) information use and problem solving, (3) managing personnel resources, and (4) managing material resources.
Information search and structuring involves the leader’s acquisition of information, organizing that information, and providing guidance or feedback to subordinates based upon that information. Information use and problem solving involves applying information in the pursuit of solving problems through identifying needs and requirements of the group, communicating that information, and coordinating unit efforts. The latter two dimensions involve implementation. Managing personnel resources involves obtaining and allocating personnel resources, developing personnel resources, and motivating unit personnel.Managing material resources involves obtaining and allocating material resources, and utilizing and monitoring the use of those resources.  Taxonomy of managerial performance While a distinction is often made between leadership and management (Bass, 1990; Yukl, 2006), many scholars agree that successful management often involves leading (Yukl, 2006). Taxonomy development of managerial performance requirements can thus be useful in identifying behaviors important for successful leadership (to the degree that there is overlap in these terms).In developing such a taxonomy Borman and Brush (1993) identified four broad categories of managerial performance: interpersonal dealings and communication, leadership and supervision, technical activities of management, and personal behavior and skills.
In comparing these taxonomies, it is evident that many of the dimensions included in the more broad categories of managerial performance are directly related to those behaviors identified by Fleishman and colleagues.Examples include planning and organizing, guiding and motivating subordinates, developing subordinates, communicating, maintaining good working relationships, problem solving, and monitoring and controlling.  Conclusion In summary, leadership performance has been conceptualized very broadly, often incorporating outcomes such as effectiveness, emergence, and advancement.
As with more general considerations of job performance (Campbell, 1990), it is important to distinguish between leader performance and effectiveness. While it is important to evaluate the influence of leadership on organizational outcomes (Kasier et al. 2008), specifically assessing leader performance, or behaviors that have expected value to organizational outcomes, allows practitioners and researchers to avoid conceptual confusion.
Various taxonomies that have been developed in the leadership and management literatures, specifically with regards to functional leadership theory. These taxonomies are useful for identifying behaviors that are likely to contribute to organizational outcomes, and thus those behaviors that should be considered when evaluating leadership performance.In addition to emphasizing the importance of behaviors over outcome oriented effectiveness measures, it is also worthy to note the nature of leadership changes across organizational levels, and as a consequence so does the criteria for success.
Generally speaking, leadership can be conceptualized in terms of three higher order levels (Katz & Kahn, 1978; Jacobs & Jaques, 1987). At the lower level, leaders are responsible for the administration of structure (Katz & Kahn, 1978) and solving everyday problems, focusing on short-term results (Jacobs & Jaques, 1987).At the middle level, leaders are responsible for clarifying the structure imposed by upper level leaders and translating in into a workable plan (Katz & Kahn, 1978). At the upper level, leaders originate structure to pass down the levels (Katz & Kahn, 1978), create corporate culture, and manage transactions between the organization and the external environment (Jacobs & Jaques, 1987). As leaders move up through the levels of an organization, the performance standards they will be responsible for and the criteria and they be evaluated against will change.Thus, the way leadership should be defined relies upon the context that it is occurring in; similarly, leadership may have a different influence on organizational outcomes based upon the level at which leadership is occurring.  References | This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate.
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J. , Jung, D. I. , & Berson, Y. (2003). Leadership models, methods, and applications. In W. C.
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Team leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 12(4), 451-483. PerformanceFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Uncovering the history of Performance is a complex task and yet there are some clues in the root of the word performance itself. Performance was first used as a term relating to the performing arts by the Egyptians, taking time off from the building of the pyramids. “Performancey” was a ritual gathering of itinerant artists who at the end of a long day hauling stone, would sing and dance and make simple stories come alive for the many thousands of tired workers. It’s use in modern times, as a generic term for multidisciplinary arts may well have its roots in these early rituals.A performance, in performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers) behave in a particular way for another group of people (the audience). Sometimes the dividing line between performer and the audience may become blurred, as in the example of “participatory theatre” where audience members might get involved in the production.
Singing choral music, and performing in a ballet are examples. Usually the performers participate in rehearsals beforehand. Afterwards audience members often clap, indicating appreciation. However, sometimes this rule is reversed.
In Japan, the greatest compliment is complete silence.  Performances, for example in theatre, can take place daily, or at some other regular interval. Performances can take place at designated performance spaces (such as a theatre or concert hall), or in a non-conventional space, such as a subway station, on the street, or in someone’s home.  Performance genres Music performance (a concert or a recital) may take place indoors in a concert hall or outdoors in a field, and may require the audience to remain very quiet, or encourage them to sing and dance along with the music.A performance may also describe the way in which an actor performs.
In a solo capacity, it may also refer to a mime artist, comedian, conjurer, or other entertainer. ? Erika Fischer-Lichte: The Transformative Power of Performance: A new aesthetics, Routledge 2008, ISBN 0415458560 Effectiveness Effectiveness means the capability of producing an effect. In mathematics, effective is sometimes used as a synonym of algorithmically computable.
In physics, an effective theory is, similar to a phenomenological theory, a framework intended to explain certain (observed) effects without the claim that the theory correctly models the underlying (unobserved) processes. An example is an effective field theory that “pretends” that certain effects are caused by a field even if it is known that this is not actually the case. In a way, any theory of Physics is fundamentally an effective theory, since there is no meaningful distinction of observables and reality within the scope of Physics (see also FAPP, cogito ergo sum, Phenomenalism, Pragmatism).In heat transfer, effectiveness is a measure of the performance of a heat exchanger when using the NTU method. In medicine, effectiveness relates to how well a treatment works in practice, as opposed to efficacy, which measures how well it works in clinical trials or laboratory studies.
In management, effectiveness relates to getting the right things done. Peter Drucker reminds us that effectiveness is an important discipline which “can be learned and must be earned. ”. In human–computer interaction, effectiveness is defined as “the accuracy and completeness of users’ tasks while using a system”.The word effective is sometimes used in a quantitative way, “being very or not much effective”. However it does not inform on the direction (positive or negative) and the comparison to a standard of the given effect. Efficacy, on the other hand, is the ability to produce a desired amount of the desired effect, or success in achieving a given goal.
Contrary to efficiency, the focus of efficacy is the achievement as such, not the resources spent in achieving the desired effect. Therefore, what is effective is not necessarily efficacious, and what is efficacious is not necessarily efficient.An ordinary way to distinguish among effectiveness, efficacy, and efficiency: * efficiency: doing things in the most economical way (good input to output ratio) * efficacy: getting things done, i. e.
meeting targets * effectiveness: doing “right” things, i. e. setting right targets to achieve an overall goal (the effect) * (effectivity: synonymous to effectiveness; usage is rather rare)  References 1. ^ Drucker, Peter F. The Effective Executive The Definitive Guide to Getting the Right Things Done (Harperbusiness Essentials).New York: Collins, 2006 2. ^ DIN EN ISO 9241-11.
Ergonomic Requirements for office with visual display terminals – Guidance on usability. Beuth, Berlin (1998) Leadership and Organizational Behavior Organizational Behavior (OB) is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. It does this by taking a system approach. That is, it interprets people-organization relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organization, and whole social system.Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational objectives, and social objectives. As you can see from the definition above, organizational behavior encompasses a wide range of topics, such as human behavior, change, leadership, teams, etc. Since many of these topics are covered elsewhere in the leadership guide, this paper will focus on a few parts of OB: elements, models, social systems, OD, work life, action learning, and change. Elements of Organizational Behavior The organization’s base rests on management’s philosophy, values, vision and goals.
This in turn drives the organizational culture which is composed of the formal organization, informal organization, and the social environment. The culture determines the type of leadership, communication, and group dynamics within the organization. The workers perceive this as the quality of work life which directs their degree of motivation. The final outcome are performance, individual satisfaction, and personal growth and development. All these elements combine to build the model or framework that the organization operates from. Models of Organizational BehaviorThere are four major models or frameworks that organizations operate out of, Autocratic, Custodial, Supportive, and Collegial: * Autocratic — The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of authority. The employees in turn are oriented towards obedience and dependence on the boss. The employee need that is met is subsistence.
The performance result is minimal. * Custodial — The basis of this model is economic resources with a managerial orientation of money. The employees in turn are oriented towards security and benefits and dependence on the organization. The employee need that is met is security.The performance result is passive cooperation. * Supportive — The basis of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation of support.
The employees in turn are oriented towards job performance and participation. The employee need that is met is status and recognition. The performance result is awakened drives. * Collegial — The basis of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation of teamwork. The employees in turn are oriented towards responsible behavior and self-discipline. The employee need that is met is self-actualization. The performance result is moderate enthusiasm. Although there are four separate models, almost no organization operates exclusively in one.
There will usually be a predominate one, with one or more areas over-lapping in the other models. The first model, autocratic, has its roots in the industrial revolution. The managers of this type of organization operate mostly out of McGregor’s Theory X. The next three models begin to build on McGregor’s Theory Y. They have each evolved over a period of time and there is no one best model. In addition, the collegial model should not be thought as the last or best model, but the beginning of a new model or paradigm.Social Systems, Culture, and Individualization A social system is a complex set of human relationships interacting in many ways. Within an organization, the social system includes all the people in it and their relationships to each other and to the outside world.
The behavior of one member can have an impact, either directly or indirectly, on the behavior of others. Also, the social system does not have boundaries…
it exchanges goods, ideas, culture, etc. with the environment around it. Culture is the conventional behavior of a society that encompasses beliefs, customs, knowledge, and practices.It influences human behavior, even though it seldom enters into their conscious thought. People depend on culture as it gives them stability, security, understanding, and the ability to respond to a given situation. This is why people fear change. They fear the system will become unstable, their security will be lost, they will not understand the new process, and they will not know how to respond to the new situations.
Individualization is when employees successfully exert influence on the social system by challenging the culture. The quadrant shown below shows how individualization affects different organizations (Schein, 1968): Quadrant A — Too little socialization and too little individualization creates isolation. * Quadrant B — Too little socialization and too high individualization creates rebellion. * Quadrant C — Too high socialization and too little individualization creates conformity. * Quadrant D — While the match that organizations want to create is high socialization and high individualization for a creative environment.
This is what it takes to survive in a very competitive environment… having people grow with the organization, but doing the right thing when others want to follow the easy path. This can become quite a balancing act.Individualism favors individual rights, loosely knit social networks, self respect, and personal rewards and careers — it may become look out for Number One! Socialization or collectivism favors the group, harmony, and asks “What is best for the organization? ” Organizations need people to challenge, question, and experiment while still maintaining the culture that binds them into a social system. Organization Development Organization Development (OD) is the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge at various levels, such as group, inter-group, organization, etc. , to bring about planned change (Newstrom, Davis, 1993).
Its objectives is a higher quality of work-life, productivity, adaptability, and effectiveness. It accomplishes this by changing attitudes, behaviors, values, strategies, procedures, and structures so that the organization can adapt to competitive actions, technological advances, and the fast pace of change within the environment. There are seven characteristics of OD (Newstrom, Davis, 1993): 1. Humanistic Values: Positive beliefs about the potential of employees (McGregor’s Theory Y). 2.
Systems Orientation: All parts of the organization, to include structure, technology, and people, must work together. . Experiential Learning: The learners’ experiences in the training environment should be the kind of human problems they encounter at work. The training should NOT be all theory and lecture.
4. Problem Solving: Problems are identified, data is gathered, corrective action is taken, progress is assessed, and adjustments in the problem solving process are made as needed. This process is known as Action Research. 5. Contingency Orientation: Actions are selected and adapted to fit the need. 6.
Change Agent: Stimulate, facilitate, and coordinate change. 7. Levels of Interventions: Problems can occur at one r more level in the organization so the strategy will require one or more interventions. Quality of Work Life Quality of Work Life (QWL) is the favorableness or unfavorableness of the job environment (Newstrom, Davis, 1993). Its purpose is to develop jobs and working conditions that are excellent for both the employees and the organization. One of the ways of accomplishing QWL is through job design.
Some of the options available for improving job design are: * Leave the job as is but employ only people who like the rigid environment or routine work.Some people do enjoy the security and task support of these kinds of jobs. * Leave the job as is, but pay the employees more. * Mechanize and automate the routine jobs. * And the area that OD loves — redesign the job. When redesigning jobs there are two spectrums to follow — job enlargement and job enrichment.
Job enlargement adds a more variety of tasks and duties to the job so that it is not as monotonous. This takes in the breadth of the job. That is, the number of different tasks that an employee performs. This can also be accomplished by job rotation. Job enrichment, on the other hand, adds additional motivators.It adds depth to the job — more control, responsibility, and discretion to how the job is performed. This gives higher order needs to the employee, as opposed to job enlargement which simply gives more variety.
The chart below illustrates the differences (Cunningham ; Eberle, 1990): The benefits of enriching jobs include: * Growth of the individual * Individuals have better job satisfaction * Self-actualization of the individual * Better employee performance for the organization * Organization gets intrinsically motivated employees * Less absenteeism, turnover, and grievances for the organization * Full use of human resources for society Society gains more effective organizations There are a variety of methods for improving job enrichment (Hackman and Oldham, 1975): * Skill Variety: Perform different tasks that require different skill. This differs from job enlargement which might require the employee to perform more tasks, but require the same set of skills. * Task Identity: Create or perform a complete piece of work. This gives a sense of completion and responsibility for the product. * Task Significant: This is the amount of impact that the work has on other people as the employee perceives. Autonomy: This gives employees discretion and control over job related decisions. * Feedback: Information that tells workers how well they are performing.
It can come directly from the job (task feedback) or verbally form someone else. For a survey activity, see Hackman ; Oldham’s Five Dimensions of Motivating Potential. Action Learning An unheralded British academic was invited to try out his theories in Belgium — it led to an upturn in the Belgian economy. “Unless your ideas are ridiculed by experts they are worth nothing,” says the British academic Reg Revans, creator of action learning.Action Learning can be viewed as a formula: [L = P + Q]: * Learning (L) occurs through a combination of * programmed knowledge (P) and * the ability to ask insightful questions (Q). Action learning has been widely used in Europe for combining formal management training with learning from experience.
A typical program is conducted over a period of 6 to 9 months. Teams of learners with diverse backgrounds conduct field projects on complex organizational problems that require the use of skills learned in formal training sessions.The learning teams then meet periodically with a skilled instructor to discuss, analyze, and learn from their experiences. Revans basis his learning method on a theory called System Beta, in that the learning process should closely approximate the scientific method. The model is cyclical — you proceed through the steps and when you reach the last step you relate the analysis to the original hypothesis and if need be, start the process again. The six steps are: 1. Formulate Hypothesis (an idea or concept) 2. Design Experiment (consider ways of testing truth or validity of idea or concept) 3.Apply in Practice (put into effect, test of validity or truth) 4. Observe Results (collect and process data on outcomes of test) 5. Analyze Results (make sense of data) 6. Compare Analysis (relate analysis to original hypothesis) Note that you do not always have to enter this process at step 1, but you do have to complete the process. Revans suggest that all human learning at the individual level occurs through this process. Note that it covers what Jim Stewart (1991) calls the levels of existence: * We think — cognitive domain * We feel — affective domain * We do — action domainAll three levels are interconnected — e. g. what we think influences and is influenced by what we do and feel. Change In its simplest form, discontinuity in the work place is change, Knoster, Villa, 2000). Our prefrontal cortex is a fast and agile computational device that is able to hold multiple threads of logic at once so that we can perform fast calculations. However, it has its limits with working memory in that it can only hold a handful of concepts at once, similar to the RAM in a PC. In addition, it burns lots of high energy glucose (blood sugar), which is expensive for the body to produce.Thus when given lots of information, such as when a change is required, it has a tendency to overload and being directly linked to the amygdala (the emotional center of the brain) that controls our fight-or-flight response, it can cause severe physical and psychological discomfort. (Koch, 2006) Our prefrontal cortex is marvelous for insight when not overloaded. But for normal everyday use, our brain prefers to run off its hard-drive — the basal ganglia, which has a much larger storage area and stores memories and our habits.In addition, it sips rather than gulps food (glucose). When we do something familiar and predictable, our brain is mainly using the basal ganglia, which is quite comforting to us. When we use our prefrontal cortex, then we are looking for fight, flight, or insight. Too much change produces fight or flight syndromes. As change agents we want to produce insight into our learners so that they are able to apply their knowledge and skills not just in the classroom, but also on the job. And the way to help people come to insight is to allow them to come to their own resolution.These moments of insight or resolutions are called epiphanies — sudden intuitive leap of understanding that are quite pleasurable to us and act as rewards. Thus you have to resist the urge to fill in the entire picture of change, rather you have to leave enough gaps so that the learners are allowed to make connections of their own. Doing too much for the learners can be just as bad, if not worse, than not doing enough. Doing all the thinking for learners takes their brains out of action, which means they will not invest the energy to make new connections. Reference Cunningham, J. B. Eberle, T. (1990). A Guide to Job Enrichment and Redesign. Personnel, Feb 1990, p. 57 in Newstrom, J. & Davis, K. (1993). Organization Behavior: Human Behavior at Work. New York: McGraw-Hill. Hackman, J. R. & Oldham, G. R. (1975). Development of the Job Diagnostic Survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, pp. 159-70. Knoster, T. , Villa, R. , & Thousand, J. (2000). A framework for thinking about systems change. In R. Villa & J. Thousand (Eds. ), Restructuring for caring and effective education: Piecing the puzzle together (pp. 93-128). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.Koch, C. (2006). The New Science of Change. CIO Magazine, Sep 15, 2006 (pp 54-56). Also available on the web: http://www. cio. com/archive/091506/change. html Newstrom, John W. & Davis, Keith (1993). Organizational Behavior: Human Behavior at Work. New York: McGraw-Hill. Revans, R. W. (1982). The Origin and Growth of Action Learning. Hunt, England: Chatwell-Bratt, Bickley. Schein, E. (1968). Organizational Socialization and the Profession of Management. Industrial Management Review, 1968 vol. 9 pp. 1-15 in Newstrom, J. & Davis, K. (1993). Organization Behavior: Human Behavior at Work.New York: McGraw-Hill. Stewart, J. (1991). Managing Change Through Training and Development. London: Kogan Page. http://www. nwlink. com/~donclark/leader/leadob. html 27/09/2010 Presentations Presentations and reports are ways of communicating ideas and information to a group. But unlike a report, a presentation carries the speaker’s personality better and allows immediate interaction between all the participants. A report is the orderly presentation of the results of the research which seeks truth and interprets facts into constructive ideas and suggestions (Gwinn, 2007).After research has found, developed, or substantiated knowledge, the new facts are collected, organized, and presented in a report designed to meet a need for specific information. A presentation is all that; however, it adds one additional element — The Human Element. A good presentation has: * Content — It contains information that people need. But unlike reports, which are read at the reader’s own pace, presentations must account for how much information the audience can absorb in one sitting. * Structure — It has a logical beginning, middle, and end. It must be sequenced and paced so that the audience can understand it.Where as reports have appendices and footnotes to guide the reader, the speaker must be careful not to loose the audience when wandering from the main point of the presentation. * Packaging — It must be well prepared. A report can be reread and portions skipped over, but with a presentation, the audience is at the mercy of a presenter. * Human Element — A good presentation will be remembered much more than a good report because it has a person attached to it. However, you must still analyze the audience’s needs to determine if they would be better met if a report was sent instead.The Voice The voice is probably the most valuable tool of the presenter. It carries most of the content that the audience takes away. One of the oddities of speech is that we can easily tell others what is wrong with their voice, e. g. too fast, too high, too soft, etc. , but we have trouble listening to and changing our own voices. There are five main terms used for defining vocal qualities (Grant-Williams, 2002): * Volume: How loud the sound is. The goal is to be heard without shouting. Good speakers lower their voice to draw the audience in, and raise it to make a point. Tone: The characteristics of a sound. An airplane has a different sound than leaves being rustled by the wind. A voice that carries fear can frighten the audience, while a voice that carries laughter can get the audience to smile. * Pitch: How high or low a note is. Pee Wee Herman has a high voice, Barbara Walters has a moderate voice, while James Earl Jones has a low voice. * Pace: This is how long a sound lasts. Talking too fast causes the words and syllables to be short, while talking slowly lengthens them. Varying the pace helps to maintain the audience’s interest. Color: Both projection and tone variance can be practiced by taking the line “This new policy is going to be exciting” and saying it first with surprise, then with irony, then with grief, and finally with anger. The key is to over-act. Remember Shakespeare’s words “All the world’s a stage” — presentations are the opening night on Broadway! There are two good methods for improving your voice: 1. Listen to it! Practice listening to your voice while at home, driving, walking, etc. Then when you are at work or with company, monitor your voice to see if you are using it how you want to. 2.To really listen to your voice, cup your right hand around your right ear and gently pull the ear forward. Next, cup your left hand around your mouth and direct the sound straight into your ear. This helps you to really hear your voice as others hear it… and it might be completely different from the voice you thought it was! Now practice moderating your voice. The Body Your body communicates different impressions to the audience. People not only listen to you, they also watch you. Slouching tells them you are indifferent or you do not care… even though you might care a great deal!On the other hand, displaying good posture tells your audience that you know what you are doing and you care deeply about it. Also, a good posture helps you to speak more clearly and effective. Throughout you presentation, display (Smith, Bace, 2002). : * Eye contact: This helps to regulate the flow of communication. It signals interest in others and increases the speaker’s credibility. Speakers who make eye contact open the flow of communication and convey interest, concern, warmth, and credibility. * Facial Expressions: Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits happiness, friendliness, warmth, and liking.So, if you smile frequently you will be perceived as more likable, friendly, warm, and approachable. Smiling is often contagious and others will react favorably. They will be more comfortable around you and will want to listen to you more. * Gestures: If you fail to gesture while speaking, you may be perceived as boring and stiff. A lively speaking style captures attention, makes the material more interesting, and facilitates understanding. * Posture and body orientation: You communicate numerous messages by the way you talk and move. Standing erect and leaning forward communicates that you are approachable, receptive, and friendly.Interpersonal closeness results when you and your audience face each other. Speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided as it communicates disinterest. * Proximity: Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction with others. You should look for signals of discomfort caused by invading other’s space. Some of these are: rocking, leg swinging, tapping, and gaze aversion. Typically, in large rooms, space invasion is not a problem. In most instances there is too much distance. To counteract this, move around the room to increase interaction with your audience.Increasing the proximity enables you to make better eye contact and increases the opportunities for others to speak. * Voice. One of the major criticisms of speakers is that they speak in a monotone voice. Listeners perceive this type of speaker as boring and dull. People report that they learn less and lose interest more quickly when listening to those who have not learned to modulate their voices. Active Listening Good speakers not only inform their audience, they also listen to them. By listening, you know if they are understanding the information and if the information is important to them.Active listening is NOT the same as hearing! Hearing is the first part and consists of the perception of sound. Listening, the second part, involves an attachment of meaning to the aural symbols that are perceived. Passive listening occurs when the receiver has little motivation to listen carefully. Active listening with a purpose is used to gain information, to determine how another person feels, and to understand others. Some good traits of effective listeners are: * Spend more time listening than talking (but of course, as a presenter, you will be doing most of the talking). Do not finish the sentence of others. * Do not answer questions with questions. * Aware of biases. We all have them. We need to control them. * Never daydream or become preoccupied with their own thoughts when others talk. * Let the other speaker talk. Do not dominate the conversation. * Plan responses after others have finished speaking… NOT while they are speaking. Their full concentration is on what others are saying, not on what they are going to respond with. * Provide feedback but do not interrupt incessantly. * Analyze by looking at all the relevant factors and asking open-ended questions.Walk the person through analysis (summarize). * Keep the conversation on what the speaker says… NOT on what interest them. Listening can be one of our most powerful communication tools! Be sure to use it! Part of the listening process is getting feedback by changing and altering the message so the intention of the original communicator is understood by the second communicator. This is done by paraphrasing the words of the sender and restating the sender’s feelings or ideas in your own words, rather than repeating their words. Your words should be saying, “This is what I understand your feelings to be, am I correct? It not only includes verbal responses, but also nonverbal ones. Nodding your head or squeezing their hand to show agreement, dipping your eyebrows to show you don’t quite understand the meaning of their last phrase, or sucking air in deeply and blowing out hard shows that you are also exasperated with the situation. Carl Rogers (1957) listed five main categories of feedback (Demos, Zuwaylif, 1962). They are listed in the order in which they occur most frequently in daily conversations (notice that we make judgments more often than we try to understand): 1.Evaluative: Makes a judgment about the worth, goodness, or appropriateness of the other person’s statement. 2. Interpretive: Paraphrasing to explain what another person’s statement mean. 3. Supportive: Attempt to assist or bolster the other communicator 4. Probing: Attempt to gain additional information, continue the discussion, or clarify a point. 5. Understanding: Attempt to discover completely what the other communicator means by her statements. Nerves The main enemy of a presenter is tension, which ruins the voice, posture, and spontaneity. The voice becomes higher as the throat tenses. Shoulders ighten up and limits flexibility while the legs start to shake and causes unsteadiness. The presentation becomes canned as the speaker locks in on the notes and starts to read directly from them. First, do not fight nerves, welcome them! Then you can get on with the presentation instead of focusing in on being nervous. Actors recognize the value of nerves… they add to the value of the performance. This is because adrenaline starts to kick in. It’s a left over from our ancestors’ “fight or flight” syndrome. If you welcome nerves, then the presentation becomes a challenge and you become better.If you let your nerves take over, then you go into the flight mode by withdrawing from the audience. Again, welcome your nerves, recognize them, let them help you gain that needed edge! Do not go into the flight mode! When you feel tension or anxiety, remember that everyone gets them, but the winners use them to their advantage, while the losers get overwhelmed by them. Tension can be reduced by performing some relaxation exercises. Listed below are a couple to get you started: * Before the presentation: Lie on the floor. Your back should be flat on the floor.Pull your feet towards you so that your knees are up in the air. Relax. Close your eyes. Feel your back spreading out and supporting your weight. Feel your neck lengthening. Work your way through your body, relaxing one section at a time — your toes, feet, legs, torso, etc. When finished, stand up slowly and try to maintain the relaxed feeling in a standing position. * If you cannot lie down: Stand with you feet about 6 inches apart, arms hanging by your sides, and fingers unclenched. Gently shake each part of your body, starting with your hands, then arms, shoulders, torso, and legs.Concentrate on shaking out the tension. Then slowly rotate your shoulders forwards and the backwards. Move on to your head. Rotate it slowly clockwise, and then counter-clockwise. * Mental Visualization: Before the presentation, visualize the room, audience, and you giving the presentation. Mentally go over what you are going to do from the moment you start to the end of the presentation. * During the presentation: Take a moment to yourself by getting a drink of water, take a deep breath, concentrate on relaxing the most tense part of your body, and then return to the presentation saying to your self, “I can do it! * You do NOT need to get rid of anxiety and tension! Channel the energy into concentration and expressiveness. * Know that anxiety and tension is not as noticeable to the audience as it is to you. * Know that even the best presenters make mistakes. The key is to continue on after the mistake. If you pick up and continue, so will the audience. Winners continue! Losers stop! * Never drink alcohol to reduce tension! It affects not only your coordination but also your awareness of coordination. You might not realize it, but your audience will! Questioning Keep cool if a questioner disagrees with you.You are a professional! No matter how hard you try, not everyone in the world will agree with you! Although some people get a perverse pleasure from putting others on the spot, and some try to look good in front of the boss, most people ask questions from a genuine interest. Questions do not mean you did not explain the topic good enough, but that their interest is deeper than the average audience. Always allow time at the end of the presentation for questions. After inviting questions, do not rush ahead if no one asks a question. Pause for about 6 seconds to allow the audience to gather their thoughts.When a question is asked, repeat the question to ensure that everyone heard it (and that you heard it correctly). When answering, direct your remarks to the entire audience. That way, you keep everyone focused, not just the questioner. To reinforce your presentation, try to relate the question back to the main points. Make sure you listen to the question being asked. If you do not understand it, ask them to clarify. Pause to think about the question as the answer you give may be correct, but ignore the main issue. If you do not know the answer, be honest, do not waffle. Tell them you will get back to them… nd make sure you do! Answers that last 10 to 40 seconds work best. If they are too short, they seem abrupt; while longer answers appear too elaborate. Also, be sure to keep on track. Do not let off-the-wall questions sidetrack you into areas that are not relevant to the presentation. If someone takes issue with something you said, try to find a way to agree with part of their argument. For example, “Yes, I understand your position… ” or “I’m glad you raised that point, but… ” The idea is to praise their point and agree with them as audiences sometimes tend to think of “us verses you. You do not want to risk alienating them. Preparing the Presentation After a concert, a fan rushed up to famed violinist Fritz Kreisler and gushed, “I’d give up my whole life to play as beautifully as you do. ” Kreisler replied, “I did. ” To fail to prepare is to prepare to fail. Great presentations require some preplanning. First, read Meetings for an outline of preparing and conducting a meeting, such as acquiring a room, informing participants, etc. A presentation follows the same basic guidelines as preparing for a meeting. The second step is to prepare the presentation.A good presentation starts out with introductions and an icebreaker such as a story, interesting statement or fact, joke, quotation, or an activity to get the group warmed up. The introduction also needs an objective, that is, the purpose or goal of the presentation. This not only tells you what you will talk about, but it also informs the audience of the purpose of the presentation. Next, comes the body of the presentation. Do NOT write it out word for word. All you want is an outline. By jotting down the main points on a set of index cards, you not only have your outline, but also a memory jogger for the actual presentation.To prepare the presentation, ask yourself the following: * What is the purpose of the presentation? * Who will be attending? * What does the audience already know about the subject? * What is the audience’s attitude towards me (e. g. hostile, friendly)? A 45 minutes talk should have no more than about seven main points. This may not seem like very many, but if you are to leave the audience with a clear picture of what you have said, you cannot expect them to remember much more than that. There are several options for structuring the presentation: * Timeline: Arranged in sequential order. Climax: The main points are delivered in order of increasing importance. * Problem/Solution: A problem is presented, a solution is suggested, and benefits are then given. * Classification: The important items are the major points. * Simple to complex: Ideas are listed from the simplest to the most complex. Can also be done in reverse order. You want to include some visual information that will help the audience understand your presentation. Develop charts, graphs, slides, handouts, etc. After the body, comes the closing. This is where you ask for questions, provide a wrap-up (summary), and thank the participants for attending.Notice that you told them what they are about to hear (the objective), told them (the body), and told them what they heard (the wrap up). And finally, the important part — practice, practice, practice. The main purpose of creating an outline is to develop a coherent plan of what you want to talk about. You should know your presentation so well, that during the actual presentation, you should only have to briefly glance at your notes to ensure you are staying on track. This will also help you with your nerves by giving you the confidence that you can do it.Your practice session should include a live session by practicing in front of coworkers, family, or friends. They can be valuable at providing feedback and it gives you a chance to practice controlling your nerves. Another great feedback technique is to make a video or audio tape of your presentation and review it critically with a colleague. Habits We all have a few habits, and some are more annoying than others. For example, if we say “uh”, “you know,” or put our hands in our pockets and jingle our keys too often during a presentation, it distracts from the message we are trying to get across.The best way to break one of these distracting habits is with immediate feedback. This can be done with a small group of coworkers, family, or friends. Take turns giving small off-the-cuff talks about your favorite hobby, work project, first work assignment, etc. The talk should last about five minutes. During a speaker’s first talk, the audience should listen and watch for annoying habits. After the presentation, the audience should agree on the worst two or three habits that take the most away from the presentation. After agreement, each audience member should write these habits on a 8 1/2 “x 11” sheet of paper (such as the word “Uh”).Use a magic marker and write in BIG letters. The next time the person gives her or his talk, each audience member should wave the corresponding sign in the air whenever they hear or see the annoying habit. For most people, this method will break a habit by practicing at least once a day for one to two weeks. Tips and Techniques For Great Presentations Eleanor Roosevelt was a shy young girl who was terrified at the thought of speaking in public. But with each passing year, she grew in confidence and self-esteem. She once said, “No one can make you feel inferior, unless you agree with it. * If you have handouts, do not read straight from them. The audience does not know if they should read along with you or listen to you read. * Do not put both hands in your pockets for long periods of time. This tends to make you look unprofessional. It is OK to put one hand in a pocket but ensure there is no loose change or keys to jingle around. This will distract the listeners. * Do not wave a pointer around in the air like a wild knight branding a sword to slay a dragon. Use the pointer for what it is intended and then put it down, otherwise the audience will become fixated upon your “sword”, instead upon you. Do not lean on the podium for long periods. The audience will begin to wonder when you are going to fall over. * Speak to the audience… NOT to the visual aids, such as flip charts or overheads. Also, do not stand between the visual aid and the audience. * Speak clearly and loudly enough for all to hear. Do not speak in a monotone voice. Use inflection to emphasize your main points. * The disadvantages of presentations is that people cannot see the punctuation and this can lead to misunderstandings. An effective way of overcoming this problem is to pause at the time when there would normally be punctuation marks. Use colored backgrounds on overhead transparencies and slides (such as yellow) as the bright white light can be harsh on the eyes. This will quickly cause your audience to tire. If all of your transparencies or slides have clear backgrounds, then tape one blank yellow one on the overhead face. For slides, use a rubber band to hold a piece of colored cellophane over the projector lens. * Learn the name of each participant as quickly as possible. Based upon the atmosphere you want to create, call them by their first names or by using Mr. , Mrs. , Miss, Ms. * Tell them what name and title you prefer to be called. Listen intently to comments and opinions. By using a lateral thinking technique (adding to ideas rather than dismissing them), the audience will feel that their ideas, comments, and opinions are worthwhile. * Circulate around the room as you speak. This movement creates a physical closeness to the audience. * List and discuss your objectives at the beginning of the presentation. Let the audience know how your presentation fits in with their goals. Discuss some of the fears and apprehensions that both you and the audience might have. Tell them what they should expect of you and how you will contribute to their goals. Vary your techniques (lecture, discussion, debate, films, slides, reading, etc. ) * Get to the presentation before your audience arrives; be the last one to leave. * Be prepared to use an alternate approach if the one you’ve chosen seems to bog down. You should be confident enough with your own material so that the audience’s interests and concerns, not the presentation outline, determines the format. Use your background, experience, and knowledge to interrelate your subject matter. * When writing on flip charts use no more than 7 lines of text per page and no more than 7 word per line (the 7 x 7 rule).Also, use bright and bold colors, and pictures as well as text. * Consider the time of day and how long you have got for your talk. Time of day can affect the audience. After lunch is known as the graveyard section in training circles as audiences will feel more like a nap than listening to a talk. * Most people find that if they practice in their head, the actual talk will take about 25 per cent longer. Using a flip chart or other visual aids also adds to the time. Remember — it is better to finish slightly early than to overrun. References Demos, G. D. , & Zuwaylif, F. (1962).Counselor attitudes in relation to the theoretical positions of their supervisors. Counselor Education and Supervision, 8-11. Gwinn, A. (2007). Business Reports – Investigation and Presentation. Philadelphia: Saunders Press. Grant-Williams, R. (2002). Voice Power: Using Your Voice to Captivate, Persuade, and Command Attention. New York: AMACOM. Rogers, C. R. (1957). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 2A,95-103. Smith, F. C. , Bace, R. G. (2002). A Guide to Forensic Testimony: The Art and Practice of Presenting Testimony As An Expert Technical Witness.Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley Professional Leadership: Strategy & Tactics Strategy is the creation of a unique and valuable market position supported by a system of activities that fit together in a complementary way (Porter, 1980). It is about making choices, trade-offs, and deliberately choosing to be different. It should not be confused with operational effectiveness — what is good for everybody and what every business should be doing, e. g. , performing the same activities your competitors perform, TQM, benchmarking, or being a learning organization (Porter, 1980).Thus, when developing strategies, the goal is to be different from your competitors. However, this does not mean that you are willing to do anything, but rather determine where the opportunities lie that you can best exploit. All strategic plans need to tie in with the organization’s strategic plan. That is, in going back to the definition of strategy, the leaders of the organization should create the unique and valuable market position; while your goal is to support the organization with activities that fit together in a complementary way. Now that does not mean you cannot do things differently or set your own goals.It simply means that you need to keep your leaders visions and goals in focus when setting your goals. For example, if the leaders have ethics and diversity at the forefront of their strategic vision, you cannot put elearning and knowledge management at the forefront of your strategic goals. However, that does not mean you cannot use elearning and knowledge management technologies to bring about ethical and diversity goals. Visioning Visioning is the start of any strategic plan. Once your leaders have set the organizational strategic plans, you need to determine how best your department can bring about changes that will support those plans.And while their strategic plan needs to be unique, you need to think along the same lines. Visioning strategy is best performed using a four-prong approach: * Internal Audit — Where are you now (snapshot)? * Reading and Research — Where can you grow? * Organization Vision — Where is the organization going? * Vision — Where do you want to grow? Note that first three steps can be performed in just about any order; however, the last step will normally be last in the process as it is based upon the other three prongs. Tactical Strategies are forward-looking. They provide the guidelines for growth.With strategies, you are in reality, speaking of future performance gaps and how you are going to overcome them. Tactical is more or less present or now-orientated. It is about present performance gaps and how you are going to overcome them in order to support the strategies. What have you done today to enhance (or at least insure against the decline of) the relative overall useful skill level of your work force vis-a-vis competitors — Tom Peters in Thriving on Chaos When Peters writes of “enhancing,” he is speaking of the strategic plans that will grow the employees to meet tomorrow’s challenges.When he writes of “insure against the decline of,” he is speaking of the tactical impediments that are presently challenging employees from meeting expected performance standards. In order to grow, you must be able to ward off present roadblocks. Thus, tactical plans are about providing performance stability so that change may take affect for growth. Strategies normally look an average of about six years into the future (with a range of about one to ten years). Tactics look ahead just far enough to secure objectives set by strategy. Thus, tactics are characterized by adroitness, ingenuity, or skill.Note that tactics is from the Greek taktika — matters pertaining to arrangement. On the other hand, strategy has its roots in “office of a General” or “to lead”). Command & Control There are four basic functions used within organizations to achieve their visions and goals: Command, Control, Leadership, and Management: 1. Command — forming and imparting visions: * Well formed visions * Clear goals and objectives for achieving the visions * QUALITY, low volume communications throughout the organization * Involvement to ensure results 2. Leadership — achieving visions through people: * Standard Bearer * Developing * Integrating . Management — implementing processes for achieving the visions: * Planning * Organizing * Budgeting 4. Control — ensuring resources went where they were supposed to go: * Routine, high volume communications * Coordination between activities * Structure to reduce uncertainty With Control and Management the ultimate goal is efficiency — addressing how well the process was accomplished (form); while with Command and Leadership the ultimate goal is effectiveness— achieving goals and mission (results).Generally, to achieve “form,” one must conceptualize “processes”; while to achieve “results,” one must conceptualize “tasks. Thus, command and leadership decide what the organization should be doing, while control and management ensure that the resources used to achieve the results are used efficiently (without waste). Frameworks of Command & Control Command and Leadership use the following framework: * Creating — creating a vision or task to achieve results * Planning — how you will achieve the result * Implementing — putting the plan into action * Follow-up — ensuring that it gets done Related to the Command & Control framework is OODA. Control and Management uses the following framework: * Observe — see what has happened Compare — what actually happened to what was supposed to happen * Decide — does the comparison show that the objectives were met and determine what needs changing? * Follow-up — ensure the change actually happened