Poverty -In three poor states in eastern India, the poverty ratio dropped far more slowly — from 66% to 47. 15% in Orissa, 62% to 42. 6% in Bihar, and 51% to 36. 09% in Assam Literacy Eastern India has a literacy rate of 59. 7, which is much lower than the national literacy rate of 64. 8. While male literacy is lower than the national average, female literacy in the East is much higher than the national average of 43. 9. Workers account for 37. 1 percent of the population of East India. The ratio of both male and female workers is lower than the averages for India. Unemployment

Tourism Industry GDP Agriculture Economic Reforms Population The Eastern region of India has a current population of 312 million and represents 28 percent of the total Indian population. The expected growth rate of population for East India over 2007 to 2025 is lower than the expected Indian population growth rate over the same period USE OF TOBACCO NEW DELHI: Northern India has the least number of female tobacco users while eastern India leads the pack, according to India’s first-ever adult tobacco survey. Around 20. 3% women in India — at 15 years and above — use some form of obacco, says the large scale survey conducted jointly by CDC Atlanta, IIPS Mumbai, WHO and the Union health ministry. However, northern and southern India record the lowest prevalence — 3. 7% and 13. 7%, respectively. While one in five women in central India consume tobacco, the prevalence is one in three in eastern India. At 30. 8%, the prevalence is also very high in north-eastern India. While in the West, 16. 1% women consume some form of tobacco. In northern India, Jammu and Kashmir has the highest prevalence of female tobacco users (10. 3%), Punjab (0. 5%), Chandigarh (1. 7%) and Delhi (3. %). As per the state-wise break-up, Mizoram records the highest number of female tobacco users (62%) followed by Tripura (48%), Nagaland (43%), Manipur (41. 8%), Chhattisgarh (41. 6%) and Bihar (40. 1%). In eastern India, 19. 3% women in West Bengal use tobacco. The corresponding figures are 40% and 36% in Bihar and Orissa, respectively. In southern India, Tamil Nadu records 8. 4% prevalence of tobacco use among women, Karnataka (16. 3%) and Kerala (8. 5%). In western India, the prevalence stands at 18. 9% in Maharashtra, 11. 3% in Gujarat and 4. 1% in Goa. In central India, 12. % women consume tobacco or tobacco products, Uttar Pradesh (16. 9%), Chhattisgarh (41. 6%) and Madhya Pradesh (18. 9%). According to the report, released on Tuesday by Union health minister Ghulam Nabi Azad, tobacco use has been found to be inversely related to the literacy levels. Among adults, tobacco use decreases sharply with education. Prevalence of tobacco use decreases from 68% among males and 33% among females with no formal education to 31% among males and only 4% among females with secondary or higher education. Females with no formal education are more likely to smoke.

According to the World Health Organization, women consist about 20% of the world’s more than one billion smokers. Both men and women who smoke are prone to cancer, heart disease and respiratory disease. Tobacco also causes additional female-specific cancers and compromises pregnancy and reproductive health. Experts say 90% of all lung cancer deaths in women smokers could be attributed to smoking. Women who smoke have an increased risk for other cancers, including cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx (voice box), esophagus, pancreas, kidney, bladder, and uterine cervix.

Other experts say scientific studies have also shown that tobacco consumption increases the risk for infertility, preterm delivery, stillbirth, low birth weight, and sudden infant death syndrome. Postmenopausal women who smoke have lower bone density than women who never smoked. Women who smoke have an increased risk for hip fracture than non- smokers. The WHO report showed how tobacco companies are continuously targeting girls through their advertising campaigns. Read more: Eastern India leads the pack in female tobacco users: Survey – The Times of India http://timesofindia. ndiatimes. com/india/Eastern-India-leads-the-pack-in-female-tobacco-users-Survey/articleshow/6776204. cms#ixzz17oPZDqcI VOILENCE The overall prevalence of physical, psychological, sexual and any form of violence among women of Eastern India were 16%, 52%, 25% and 56% respectively. These rates reported by men were 22%, 59%, 17% and 59. 5% respectively. Men reported higher prevalence of all forms of violence apart from sexual violence. Husbands were mostly responsible for violence in majority of cases and some women reported the involvement of husbands’ parents.

It is found that various acts of violence were continuing among majority of women who reported violence. Some socio-economic characteristics of women have significant association with the occurrence of domestic violence. Urban residence, older age, lower education and lower family income are associated with occurrence of domestic violence. Multivariate logistic regressions revealed that the physical violence has significant association with state, residence (rural or urban), age and occupation of women, and monthly family income.

Similar associations are found for psychological violence (with residence, age, education and occupation of the women and monthly family income) and sexual violence (with residence, age and educational level of women). Conclusion The prevalence of domestic violence in Eastern India is relatively high compared to majority of information available from India and confirms that domestic violence is a universal phenomenon. The primary healthcare institutions in India should institutionalise the routine screening and treatment for violence related injuries and trauma.

Also, these results provide vital information to assess the situation to develop public health interventions, and to sensitise the concerned agencies to implement the laws related to violence against women. The overall prevalence of physical, psychological, sexual and any form of violence among women of Eastern India were 16%, 52%, 25% and 56% respectively. These rates reported by men were 22%, 59%, 17% and 59. 5% respectively. Men reported higher prevalence of all forms of violence apart from sexual violence. Husbands were mostly responsible for violence in majority of cases and some women reported the involvement of husbands’ parents.

It is found that various acts of violence were continuing among majority of women who reported violence. Some socio-economic characteristics of women have significant association with the occurrence of domestic violence. Urban residence, older age, lower education and lower family income are associated with occurrence of domestic violence. Multivariate logistic regressions revealed that the physical violence has significant association with state, residence (rural or urban), age and occupation of women, and monthly family income.

Similar associations are found for psychological violence (with residence, age, education and occupation of the women and monthly family income) and sexual violence (with residence, age and educational level of women). Conclusion The prevalence of domestic violence in Eastern India is relatively high compared to majority of information available from India and confirms that domestic violence is a universal phenomenon. The primary healthcare institutions in India should institutionalise the routine screening and treatment for violence related injuries and trauma.

Also, these results provide vital information to assess the situation to develop public health interventions, and to sensitise the concerned agencies to implement the laws related to violence against women. AIDS [pic] AVERT is an international HIV and AIDS charity, based in the UK, working to avert HIV and AIDS worldwide, through education, treatment and care. (survey) Goa Goa, a popular tourist destination, is a very small state in the southwest of India (population 1. 4 million). In 2007 HIV prevalence among antenatal and STD clinic attendees was 0. 18% and 5. 6% respectively. 9 The Goa State AIDS Control Society reported that in 2008, a record number of 26,737 people were tested for HIV, of which 1018 (3. 81%) tested positive. 30 Karnataka Karnataka, a diverse state in the southwest of India, has a population of around 53 million. HIV prevalence among antenatal clinic attendees exceeded 1% from 2003 to 2006, and dropped to 0. 5% in 2007. 31 Districts with the highest prevalence tend to be located in and around Bangalore in the southern part of the state, or in northern Karnataka’s “devadasi belt”. Devadasi women are a group of women who have historically been dedicated to the service of gods.

These days, this has evolved into sanctioned prostitution, and as a result many women from this part of the country are supplied to the sex trade in big cities such as Mumbai. 32 The average HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Karnataka was just over 5% in 2007, and 17. 6% of men who have sex with men were found to be infected. 33 Maharashtra Maharashtra is a very large state of three hundred thousand square kilometres, with a total population of around 97 million. The capital city of Maharashtra – Mumbai (Bombay) – is the most populous city in India, with around 14 million inhabitants.

The HIV prevalence at antenatal clinics in Maharashtra was 0. 5% in 2007. 34 At 18%, the state has the highest reported rates of HIV prevalence among female sex workers. 35 Similarly high rates were found among injecting drug users (24%) and men who have sex with men (12% Manipur Manipur is a small state of some 2. 4 million people in northeast India. Manipur borders Myanmar (Burma), one of the world’s largest producers of illicit opium. In the early 1980s drug use became popular in northeast India and it wasn’t long before HIV was reported among injecting drug users in the region. 1 Although NACO report a state-wise HIV prevalence of 17. 9%  among IDUs, studies from different areas of the state find prevalence to be as high as 32%. 42 HIV is no longer confined to IDUs, but has spread further to the general population. HIV prevalence at antenatal clinics in Manipur exceeded 1% in recent years, but then declined to 0. 75% in 2007. 43 Estimated adult HIV prevalence is the highest out of all states, at 1. 57%. 44 Mizoram The small northeastern state of Mizoram has fewer than a million inhabitants.

In 1998, an HIV epidemic took off quickly among the state’s male injecting drug users, with some drug clinics registering HIV rates of more than 70% among their patients. 45 In recent years the average prevalence among this group has been much lower, at around 3-7%. 46 HIV prevalence at antenatal clinics was 0. 75% in 2007. 47 • NACO (2007) ‘HIV sentinel surveillance and HIV estimation in India 2007: A technical brief’ • Goa State AIDS Control Society ‘Facts and figures in detail’ • NACO (2007) ‘HIV sentinel surveillance and HIV estimation in India 2007: A technical brief’ • Sivaram S. 2002) ‘Integrating income generation and AIDS prevention efforts: lessons from working with devadasi women in rural Karnataka, India’, Abstract MoOrF1048, The XIV International AIDS Conference • NACO (2007) ‘HIV sentinel surveillance and HIV estimation in India 2007: A technical brief’ • NACO (2007) ‘HIV sentinel surveillance and HIV estimation in India 2007: A technical brief’ • NACO (2007) ‘HIV sentinel surveillance and HIV estimation in India 2007: A technical brief’ Kumar, M. S. et al (2009) ‘Opioid substitution treatment with sublingual buprenorphine in Manipur and Nagaland in Northeast India: what has been established needs to be continued and expanded’, Harm Reduction Journal, 2009 vol. 6(1)4. • Mahanta, J. t al (2008) ‘Injecting and sexual risk behaviours, sexually transmitted infections and HIV prevalence in injecting drug users in three states in India’, AIDS 2008, 22 (5):59-68 • NACO (2007) ‘HIV sentinel surveillance and HIV estimation in India 2007: A technical brief’ • NACO (2007) ‘HIV sentinel surveillance and HIV estimation in India 2007: A technical brief’ • World Bank ‘South Asia Region (SAR)- India Regional Updates’ • NACO (2007) ‘HIV sentinel surveillance and HIV estimation in India 2007: A technical brief’ • NACO (2007) ‘HIV sentinel surveillance and HIV estimation in India 2007: A technical brief’ POOR AND NUTRITION

NEW DELHI: India’s abysmal track record at ensuring basic levels of nutrition is the greatest contributor to its poverty as measured by the new international Multi-dimensional Poverty Index (MPI). About 645 million people or 55% of India’s population is poor as measured by this composite indicator made up of ten markers of education, health and standard of living achievement levels. Developed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) for the United Nations Development Programmes (UNDP) forthcoming 2010 Human Development Report, the MPI attempts to capture more than just income poverty at the household level.

It is composed of ten indicators: years of schooling and child enrollment (education); child mortality and nutrition (health); and electricity, flooring, drinking water, sanitation, cooking fuel and assets (standard of living). Each education and health indicator has a 1/6 weight, each standard of living indicator a 1/18 weight. The new data also shows that even in states generally perceived as prosperous such as Haryana, Gujarat and Karnataka, more than 40% of the population is poor by the new composite measure, while Kerala is the only state in which the poor constitute less than 20%.

The MPI measures both the incidence of poverty and its intensity. A person is defined as poor if he or she is deprived on at least 3 of the 10 indicators. By this definition, 55% of India was poor, close to double India’s much-criticised official poverty figure of 29%. Almost 20% of Indians are deprived on 6 of the 10 indicators. Nutritional deprivation is overwhelmingly the largest factor in overall poverty, unsurprising given that half of all children in India are under-nourished according to the National Family Health Survey III (2005-06).

Close to 40% of those who are defined as poor are also nutritionally deprived. In fact, the contribution of nutrition to the overall MPI is even greater in urban than rural India. A comparison of the state of Madhya Pradesh and the sub-Saharan nation of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), which have close to the same population and a similar MPI (0. 389 and 0. 393 respectively), shows that nutritional deprivation, arguably the most fundamental part of poverty, in MP far exceeds that in the DRC. Nutritional deprivation contributes to almost 20% f MP’s MPI and only 5% of the DRC’s MPI. MP’s drinking water, electricity and child mortality levels are better than that of the DRC. Multi-dimensional poverty is highest (81. 4% poor) among Scheduled Tribes within India’s Hindu population, followed by Scheduled Castes (65. 8%), Other Backward Class (58. 3%) and finally the general population (33. 3%). There is significant variation between the poverty incidence in various states as per the MPI and as per the Indian Planning Commission’s official figures.

Based on the MPI, Bihar has by far the most poor of any state in the country, with 81. 4% of its population defined as poor, which is close to 12% more than the next worst state of Uttar Pradesh. As per the Planning Commission’s figures, 41. 4% of Bihar and 32. 8% of UP is poor. In a possible indication of inadequate access to health and education facilities which do not show up in income poverty, almost 60% of north-east India and close to 50% of Jammu ; Kashmir are poor as per the MPI, while the Planning Commission figures are around 16% and 5% respectively.

The findings would provide further ballast to the argument of some economists that India’s official poverty estimation methods are too narrowly focused to capture the real extent of deprivation in the country. Read more: 55% of India’s population poor: Report – The Times of India http://timesofindia. indiatimes. com/india/55-of-Indias-population-poor-Report/articleshow/6169549. cms#ixzz17oTkbPGF

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