Purpose of the course – familiarize you with: 1. Managerial accounting concepts. 2. Managerial accounting practices. 3. Use of managerial accounting information for decision making. 4. Pitfalls. Accounting is a branch of study concerned with the generation ( identification & measurement ) and provision (Communication) of information. Managerial accounting is in particular accounting for the internal management of organizations. A. Financial versus Managerial Accounting Financial AccountingManagement Accounting
Approach! unifying concept: assets=equities! no underlying unity– many approaches Rules ! G. A. A. P.! no general principles ! mandatory! mostly optional Measurement! almost exclusively $! many non-financial elements ! emphasis on precision, objectivity! subjective estimates Past/Future! based on past! many future estimates and forecasts Aggregation! overall summary of business! very segmented ! general purpose information! specific purpose reports Frequency! less/mandatory frequency! more frequent and optional Similarity! basic data source same End result! nds with financial statements! integral part of other business aspects B. Cost Accounting Terminology 1. Nature of Cost Cost – A sacrifice of resources: Cost is a measurement in monetary terms of the amount of resources used for some purpose. Expense – The cost charged against revenue in a particular accounting period. 2. Purposes of Gathering Cost Information Routine decision making: Managerialcontrol Accounting Nonroutine decision making Cost Accounting Cost of Goods Sold Financial Product
Accounting Costing Inventory Valuation B. Three Aspects (Basic costs) of Managerial Accounting: 1. Decision Making (Differential Costs) Interface with decision models from operations research, economics and finance, competitive analysis of costs and prices, cost of capital calculations and investment decisions. Example : Dominos Pizza almost bankrupt 6′ pizza making losses 2. Product Costing (Full Costs) Associating a $ value for the resources sacrificed in obtaining a product or service. – used for financial reporting – valuation of inventory, COGS. used for internal decision making – product pricing, optimal product mix. Example-poor costing led Rockwell International Inc. , to overcharge customers – high volume product – heavy duty truck axles – attract competitors selling at lower prices hence trouble. -automobile industry controllable costs. -steel industry died because of high wages. 3. Planning, Control ; Performance Evaluation (Responsibility Costs) – Quantification of goals, strategies and forecasts in the form of budgets – develop pro forma financial statements. Measure to what extent managers and organizational subunits (responsibility centers) did achieve their goals. a) Informal control – social psychology. b) Formal control – performance evaluation, incentive provisions, compensation, promotions and dismissals. Example: Reimbursement mechanisms for hospitals, NOTE: DIFFERENT COSTS FOR DIFFERENT PURPOSES IS A RECURRENT THEME IN MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING 3. What types of costs are incurred in a Manufacturing Firm? O/I ¦ ? Raw ——-¬ Materials—>¦ R/M ¦ R/M Purchased ¦Invty ¦ Used L–T—- ¦ ? C/I O/I O/I ¦ ? ? Labor ——¬ ——¬ ——¬ Purchases —- Wages —- ¦ WIP ¦—-< ¦ F/G ¦—< ¦SOLD ¦ ¦Invty¦ COGM ¦Invty¦COGS ¦ ¦ L–T— L–T— L—— Equipment ¦ ¦ Purchases Depreciation ? ? C/I C/I Other Other Costs———< Overhead Consider the above diagram in terms of: * the flow of physical units (materials, labor, machine usage, etc. ) * the flow of costs
NOTE that the accumulation of costs is associated with the accumulation of physical units. Hence: Is there a relationship between flow/accumulation of costs and the flow/accumulation of physical units: it is this relationship which we call cost classification. To use cost information effectively, we need to know how costs change or relate to the physical units or volume of activity. Cost Objects are anything for which a separate measurement of cost is desired. Cost Accumulation and Cost Assignment. Two stages in which an accounting system accounts for costs are: cost accumulation and 2]assignment to various cost objects in order to provide manager needed information for decision making purposes. Cost Classification: Now consider some ways of classifying costs: A. Based on business function (R;D, Design, Production, Marketing, Distribution, Customer service) B. Based on financial statement presentation (capitalized, noncapitalized, inventoriable, non-inventoriable: product vs. period) C. Based on assignment to cost object (direct vs. indirect) D. Based on behavior in relation to cost driver (variable vs. fixed) E. Based on aggregation (total vs. unit) Product vs Period
During a given year all costs incurred by the firm can be classified into: * costs that can be matched with the process of production: these are called product costs. * costs that cannot be matched with units as they are manufactured: these are called period costs. (They can only be matched with the given period. ) GAAP: all costs of manufacturing are product costs; all selling and administrative expenses are period costs; Why is this difference important? . . . . . . . . . Product cost is the sum of the costs assigned to a product for a specific purpose. Exhibit 2-9 – Panel A ; B (page 44) illustrates three different purposes: Product pricing and product emphasisproduction costs !Contracting with government agencies+ design ; R;D costs !Financial statements+ mktg, distbn, ; customer service costs Manufacturing Costs: Three manufacturing cost categories 1. Direct materials costs – acquisition costs of all materials that eventually become part of the cost object (usually final product) that can be traced in an economically feasible way. 2. Direct manufacturing labor costs – compensation of all manufacturing labor that is specifically identified with the cost object that can be easily traced in an economically feasible way. 3.
Indirect manufacturing costs – all other manufacturing costs that cannot be individually traced to the cost object (final product) in an economical way. Other terms used for indirect manufacturing costs include factory overhead, manufacturing overhead, factory burden. Three-part and Two-Part Cost Classifications. Manufacturing-cost accounting systems normally classify costs into either three or two categories. !In a three-part system, costs are classified as direct material, direct labor, and indirect manufacturing costs. !In a two-part system, costs are classified as direct materials costs and indirect manufacturing costs. Refer to Concepts in Action on page 41 regarding Harley-Davidson’s decision to move to a two-part system. ) C. Prime costs include all direct manufacturing costs. D. Conversion costs are all manufacturing costs other than direct materials. They include direct labor and indirect manufacturing costs. Direct vs Indirect – Within the category of product costs we classify costs into: * costs for which there is a direct link to individual units of product: these are called direct costs; e. g. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * all other product costs: these are called indirect costs; e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Cost Tracing and Cost Allocation 1. Direct costs of a cost object are related to and can be traced to a given cost object [product, department, etc. ] in an economically feasible way. 2. Indirect costs of a cost object are related to but cannot be traced to a given cost object; therefore, indirect costs are allocated to the cost object. 3. Factors affecting classification of a cost as direct or indirect: a. Materiality of the cost in question b. Information-gathering technology available c. Design of operations . Contractual arrangements Materials can be direct or indirect. Labor can be direct or indirect. Overhead is always indirect. Direct Costs -Costs that can be directly related to a cost object, e. g. a particular unit of output. Indirect Costs -Costs that cannot be directly related to a cost object. Direct Materials -materials used in production which end up as part of the finished product. For example, in the manufacture of automobiles, steel is a direct material. Indirect Materials -materials used in production which do not end up as part of the finished product.
For example, in the manufacture of steel, the oil used to fire the furnaces is an indirect material. Direct Labor -costs of the workers who work directly on the production process. An assembly line worker is considered direct labor. Indirect Labor -costs of workers who work in the factory but not directly on the production process. The factory foreman is considered indirect labor. Overhead -all costs that are not direct materials or direct labor. Overhead includes indirect materials, indirect labor, depreciation on the factory building and equipment, insurance and taxes on the factory, etc.
Product Cost= Direct material+ Direct labor+ Manufacturing Overhead =Prime Cost+ Manufacturing Overhead =Direct Material+ Conversion Cost Cost Drivers and Cost Management Cost Drivers: A. Due to increased competition, organizations are attempting to continuously reduce costs by: 1. Performing only value added activities – those that customers perceive as adding value, and 2. Efficiently managing the use of cost drivers in those value-added activities. Cost Behavior Patterns: Variable Costs and Fixed Costs 1.
Variable cost is a cost that changes in total in direct proportion to changes of a cost driver: i. e. a cost is variable if in total it varies in proportion to changes in the level of production. A. Fixed costs, in total, do not change as the related cost driver changes, i. e; a cost is fixed if in total it remains fixed (for a given time period) regardless of changes in the level of production (within a relevant range of production B. Semi-Variable/Semi-Fixed: Assumptions:1. costs behavior is dependent on a specified cost object 2. the time span must be specified . total costs are linear 4. there is only one cost driver 5. variations of the level of the cost driver are within a relevant range 4. A relevant range is the range of the cost driver in which a specific relationship between cost and the driver is valid 5. Relationships of Types of Costs (Refer to Exhibit 2-5. ) > ¦ Cost of Fertilizer ¦ ¦ (The cost of fertilizer per kiwifruit is fixed. ) ¦ ¦ L——————————-< Volume of Kiwifruit Production > ¦ Cost of Farm Rent ¦ ¦ | | ¦ | | L——————————-< Volume of Kiwifruit Production Relevant Range (The cost of rent per kiwifruit varies with the level of production: this is a “spurious” (meaningless? ) calculation anyway. Why? – not controllable on a per unit basis. ) An information system which breaks down costs into VC and FC is costly. (Running regressions is more expensive than not running regressions. ) Why might this classification be valuable? . . .
Total Costs and Units Costs: Pitfalls of UNIT Costs: A. Unit cost is computed by dividing some cost total by some number of units. It is also called average cost. B. It is important to use caution when using unit costs. Whenever fixed costs are present, the unit cost will change at different volume levels. See bottom of page 34 of the text for an illustration of this point. Financial Statements and Cost Terminology A. Capitalized costs are those that are presumed to have future benefits and are first recorded as assets when incurred. B. Noncapitalized costs are recorded as expenses of the accounting period when they are incurred.
Service-sector companies provide services or intangible products to their customers – for example, an audit or legal advice. A. These firms do not have inventories at the end of an accounting period, and labor is the most significant cost category. B. A service-sector income statement and the treatment of capitalized and noncapitalized cost in a manufacturing sector company are presented in panels A and B respectively of Exhibit 2-6 on pageXX of the text. Merchandising- and Manufacturing-Sector Companies Merchandising-sector companies provide tangible products they have previously purchased in the same basic form from suppliers.
Examples include retailers, distributors, and wholesalers. Manufacturing-sector companies provide tangible products that have been converted to a different form from that of the products purchased from suppliers. These firms can have direct materials, work in process, or finished goods inventories at the end of an accounting period. !Capitalized inventoriable costs (also called inventoriable costs) are those either associated with the purchase of goods for resale (merchandising) or with the acquisition and conversion of materials and other manufacturing inputs into goods for sale (manufacturing).
These costs become Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) when the inventory is sold. !Capitalized noninventoriable costs are those associated with any aspect of the business other than inventory, example: depreciation. Operating costs include noncapitalized costs and the periodic expensing of capitalized noninventoriable costs (e. g. depreciation) and are consumed in the generation of revenue. Income Statements of Merchandising-Sector firm and Manufacturing-Sector firm are presented in Exhibit , panel A on page xx and Exhibit 2-x, panel A on page xx, respectively.
A separate Schedule of Cost of Goods Manufactured must be prepared for the manufacturer (see panel B of Exhibit 2-x). Diagrams illustrating the flow of capitalized inventoriable, capitalized noninventoriable, and noncapitalized costs are presented in panel B of Exhibit 2-x for a merchandising-sector company and in Exhibit 2-x for a manufacturing-sector company, respectively. Summary of Cost Classifications | | | | | | | |PRODUCT | |PERIOD | | | | | | | | |Direct Materials |Direct Labor |Factory Overhead | | | | | | | | |F I X E D | | | | | | | | | | | |VARIABLE | | | | | Direct Costs Indirect Costs Fixed? Indirect Variable? Direct Benefits of Defining Accounting Terms A. It is important to clearly define what is meant by or is includible in different cost accounting terms. For instance, the example in the text indicates that the treatment of fringe benefits for manufacturing employees as either direct labor or indirect manufacturing costs may have important tax consequences. B.
Other items that present classification difficulties include: compensation for training time, idle time, vacation pay, sick leave, and extra compensation for overtime. C. In order to prevent disputes, contracts and laws should be as specific as possible regarding definitions and measurements of accounting terms. Summary Cost Concepts & Definitions CONCEPTDEFINITION CostA sacrifice of resources ExpenseThe cost charged against revenue in a particular accounting period. We generally use the term expense only when speaking of financial reports; expired cost. Cost Concepts for Cost Accounting Systems Product costsCosts that firms can more easily attribute to products; costs that are part of inventory.
Period costsCosts that firms can more easily attribute to time intervals. Prime costThe component of product cost that constitutes direct labor & direct materials. Conversion costThe component of product cost that constitutes direct labor & overhead. Absorption Cost A method of inventory valuation in which cost firms use all manufacturing costs – both fixed and variable – in computing a unit product cost. (also called full cost) Variable costA method of inventory valuation in which firms use only variable manufacturing costs in computing the unit product cost. (also called direct cost) Cost objectAny item for which the manager wishes to measure cost (e. g. , product department).
Direct costsCosts directly related to cost object. Indirect costsCosts not directly related to a cost object. Common costsCost shared by more than one cost object. CONCEPTDEFINITION Cost Concepts Used in Decision Making Variable costsCost that vary with the volume of activity. Fixed costsCosts that do not vary with volume of activity over a specified time span. Differential Costs Costs that change in response to a particular course of action. Sunk CostsCosts that result from an expenditure made in the past and that cannot be changed by present or future decisions. Opportunity cost:The return that one could realize from the best foregone alternative use of a resource.
Miscellaneous Cost Concepts Controllable Costs Costs that can be influenced or affected by a particular individual. Noncontrollable CostsCosts that cannot be influenced or affected by a particular individual. Average CostsA division of the total costs for the period by some unit of operations such as number of hours worked or number of units produced. The most frequently used average cost is the average unit cost. Question: How would you classify overtime premium cost? NOTE: It is important to recognize that the above cost classifications are not mutually exclusive. Furthermore, often we cannot uniquely determine the nature of a given cost item.