In 1954 the Supreme Court justices made a ruling on what I believe to be one of the most important cases within American history, Brown v Board of Education. There were nine Justices serving in the case of Brown v Board of Education this was the court of 1953-1954. This court was formed Monday, October 5, 1953 and Disbanded Saturday, October 9, 1954. Chief Justice, Earl Warren, Associate Justices, Hugo L.
Black, Stanley Reed, Felix Frankfurter, William O. Douglas, Robert H. Jackson, Harold Burton, Tom C. Clark, Sherman Minton all of which voted unanimously in favor of Brown in the case of Brown v Board of Education [as cited on http://www. oyez. org/courts/warren/war1]. Brown v Board of Education was a landmark U. S. Supreme Court decision that brought to light the fact that racial segregation in the public schools system was both morally unsound and unconstitutional.
The case was brought to the Supreme Court by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, more commonly known as the NAACP, on behalf of a young African American female named Linda Brown, a student who attended an extremely segregated all-black elementary school from a small town in Kansas called Topeka. The decision led to nationwide desegregation in educational and other institutions and gave impetus to the civil rights movement in America. Jim Crow laws kept the minorities (primarily African Americans) of this country in a very neglected and fearful state; this was the face of our country for decades.
My family is primarily from the south, North Carolina and Virginia (During this time period in the 1950s, these were and still can be a very difficult place for blacks and many other minorities to live, especially). My father will always tell me stories of growing up in the Jim Crow era; he would recall stories of times when he and my uncles would have to walk to school and watch the white children ride the bus to better schools with much more money for better educations.
My father would also recant much time in which the white children that had the privilege of riding the bus would yell racist slurs, and spit at them at them from the windows as the buses that would pass my father and my uncles as they walked to school. Because of this Plessy v. Ferguson, better know as “The Separate but Equal Case; 163 U. S. 537” , many people had the endure being treated like lesser human beans for years [Encyclopedia of American History]. After the infamous Brown v Board of Education trail, the Supreme Court took Mr.
Earl Warren statement, “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal” as the ruling towards Plessy v. Ferguson. The Plessy v Ferguson was a clear violation of the Fourteenth Amendment as it was stated in the Encyclopedia of American Law “The Fourteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution states, ‘No state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. ’ The Amendment became part of the Constitution in the immediate aftermath of the Civil War. The decision led to nationwide desegregation in the public educational system and many other both public and private institutions and gave a great momentum to the civil rights movement in America. The civil rights movement was a great time in American history in witch many American citizens gathered together and protested using boycotts, marches, and large speeches against both the federal and state governments for their horrible mistreatment of the minorities that call the United States of American home (http://www. infoplease. com/spot/civilrightstimeline1. html: Civil Rights Timeline).
The civil rights movement was in direct relation with the case of Brown v Board of Education. There were many heroes in this civil rights movement many of whom helped pave the way for Brown v Board of Education. On July 26, 1948 president Harry S. Truman singed an executive order numbered 9981 this executive order states “It is essential that there be maintained in the armed services of the United States the highest standards of democracy, with equality of treatment and opportunity for all those who serve in our country’s defense” (http://www. trumanlibrary. org/9981a. tm: executive order 9981 In text format). Executive order 9981 slowed the amount of segregation in the armed forces. One of my personal favorite civil rights heroes happens to be the famous attorney that argued for the NAACP in the case of Brown v Board of Education, before becoming a Supreme Court justice Thurgood Marshall won 27 of the 32 of the court cases that he tried before the United States Supreme Court. Because of Thurgood Marshall’s declamatory arguing skills Thurgood Marshall was designate the nickname of “the Wrathful Marshall. ” (As citied in 1993 Thurgood Marshall).
After Thurgood Marshall’s Ground breaking win with the Supreme Court in the case of Brown v Board of Education it was still very difficult for minorities to be able to safely attend many of the of the southern with schools in the United States of America. For example the state of Virginia resisted conforming to the decision passed down from the Supreme Court bench in reference to Brown v Board of Education, or any thing having to do with desegregation of any kind; it took five years (February 2, 1959) for Virginia’s public schools to state allowing minorities (colored people). 7 black students enrolled in to a pubic school in Norfolk Virginia and four black students enrolled in to a school in Arlington County a primarily peaceful manner (as citied on www. encyclopediavirginia. org). It was no easy act, getting these 21 students enrolled in to public schools, because even after the changes brought about by the Supreme court case of Brown v Board of Education many individual communities along side of the NAACP had to take the state supreme court of Virginia to federal court, this went on until some time in the early 1970s (as citied on www. encyclopediavirginia. org).
One of the more famous cases of integration in to was pubic school system took place in Little Rock Arkansas, this is now commonly known as the Little Rock Nine. In the small town of Little Rock Arkansas the governor by the name of Governor Faubus; what made this situation stand out above the others was the fact that Governor Faubus called the national Guard into Little Rock Arkansas just to keep Little Rock Arkansas’ schools all white (Little Rock Nine). On the date of September 20, 1957, On Monday, September 23, 1957 the NAACP along side Thurgood Marshall and Wiley Branton received permission from Judge Ronald N.
Davies of the Untied States Supreme Court the right to force Governor Faubus cease the use of any members the National Guard to block the students from entering the high school (Little Rock Nine). My father told me a story about his first day at a formally segregated all white school. My father told me that this was his first time interacting with any white people in his life ( he was about ten at the time). They still had to walk to school, and they still had that same bus full of ignorant children spiting and yelling at them as they walked to their first day of Desegregated schooling in Virginia Beach, Virginia.
This time when my father and my uncles were being yelled at by the children on the bus they did not react to the taunting at all. By the time my father got to the school the ignorant children from the bus realized that the group of black children that they have been messing with were now attending the same school as them; my father and my uncles never had any problems out of the children from the bus again. Brown v Board of Education was about so much more then just the education of our nation’s youth. I believe that it was a true new beginning for an entire generation of young American citizens.
Many people have very mixed feelings towards the case of Brown v Board of Education; without all of the pain and time invested into getting a pro Brown decision in the case of Brown v Board of Education with the Supreme Court in 1954 this country would be a far lesser place for it.
1) Daugherity, Brian J. “Desegregation in Public Schools. ” Encyclopedia Virginia. Ed. Brendan Wolfe. 6 Dec. 2010. Virginia Foundation for the Humanities. 24 Aug. 2010 http://www. EncyclopediaVirginia. org/Desegregation_in_Public_Schools
2) The Constitution Book: page 82
3) Encyclopedia of American History: The Development of the Industrial United States, 1870 to 1899, Revised Edition (Volume VI): Plessy v. Ferguson
4) http://www. brainyquote. com/quotes/quotes/e/earlwarren162280. html: Earl Warren Quote
5) http://www. nationalcenter. org/brown. html: Supreme Court of the United States Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U. S. 483 (1954) (USSC+)
6) http://www. oyez. org/cases/1950-1959/1952/1952_1/: Brown v. Board of Education (I)
7) Encyclopedia of American Law
8) http://supreme. justia. com/us/347/483/case. html: BROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION OF TOPEKA, 347 U. S. 483 (1954)
9) http://www. trumanlibrary. org/9981. htm: Executive Order 9981: By: Harry Truman