Psychological Disorders Your Name PSY 240 Axia College Instructor: Remember, that this is only a tutorial and you should NOT copy and paste this as your own work. It is only to help you with your own paper. Do not plagiarize as you will get into trouble with your school. Thanks and good luck! It is a pleasure and I thank you for considering me for this position. In Part A I will discuss Schizophrenia, the causes, what part of the brain it affects, the symptoms, medications, and therapy involved. Part B will be an interpretation of two cases I chose with the first case being drug abuse, and the second case being Anorexia Nervosa .
These cases will be analyzed from a bio psychological perspective. Part A: Causes and Treatment of Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a severe brain disease that interferes with normal mental and brain function. The five types of Schizophrenia are: paranoid, catatonic, residual, disorganized, and undifferentiated. This disorder triggers paranoia, delusions, and hallucinations, and there is also a lack of motivation. If this disease is left untreated it can affect the ability to interact with other people, to think clearly, and manage one’s emotions. One cause of Schizophrenia (and there are many) could be, but not yet proven, enetic. The reason for this is because if a parent or a sibling has Schizophrenia, then another member of the family may also develop the disorder. It can also be related to environment. Factors like an early exposure to a viral infection, stress, and childhood trauma could also increase the risk of developing Schizophrenia. (Pinel, 2007) Schizophrenia has many symptoms, and comes in two groups which are negative symptoms and positive symptoms. With a person having negative symptoms of Schizophrenia they will be as follows: a lack of motivation, inappropriate emotions, and elf neglect. When these symptoms first appear, they are often confused with depression. With a person having positive symptoms of Schizophrenia they will be as follows: delusions, hallucinations, and strange behavior (confusing thoughts and or speech) Both negative and positive symptoms start to appear in adolescence or early adulthood, and develop gradually which could sometimes go unrecognized until it is in the advanced stage and makes it difficult to treat. There are also 5 classifications of Schizophrenia which are based on the common symptoms a person has. The first being Paranoid
Schizophrenia which is a person who hears voices, (sometimes threatening) They may also attack another person or an object because of fear. Disorganized Schizophrenia is the most serious of the five classifications. This person has unpredictable behavior, they show no facial expressions, and sometimes make up things that make no sense to others. Catatonic schizophrenia is when a person has long periods of sitting or standing statue like which is called catatonic stupor. This person may also have episodes of intense activity which is called catatonic excitement. They may also hurt others or even themselves.
Undifferentiated Schizophrenics do not fit into any of the classifications. Residual Schizophrenia is a continuation of symptoms that stay although gradually decrease during a remission. The neural basis does suggest an imbalance of neurotransmitters that are associated with the development of Schizophrenia. (National Institute of Mental Health, 2008) It seems that Dopamine is the neurotransmitter that is responsible for Schizophrenia. Glutamate, GABA, and serotonin are also included. (Pinel, 2007) There are several regions of the brain which do show that there is an altered level of function in people with Schizophrenia.
MRI studies do show a reduced blood flow to the frontal cortex, the parlimbic region, and the dorsolateral pre frontal cortex. There is also increased blood flow to the anterior prefrontal cortex. (Schizophrenia, 2009) Drugs that have been developed to help the symptoms, although will not cure the disease are neuroleptic medications used to bind to certain receptors, D1, D2, D4, which are involved with Schizophrenia. (Pinel, 2007) Some medications that are used are Haloperidol or Chlorpromazine which is for reducing anxiety, and for stopping the hallucinations and delusions. Although effective, side effects are uncontrolled body ovements. These are also considered First generation antipsychotics. Second generation antipsychotic medications include Risperdal, Invega, Geodon, Zyprexa, and Seroquel. These are used for effectively treating symptoms of Schizophrenia and also to reduce the risk of relapse. Clozapine is also used for treating a person who has behaviors of suicide and for severe Schizophrenia that will not improve with other treatment. Special monitoring is also needed for this type of medication because Clozapine can result in a severe loss of white blood cells that will directly affect the immune system. National Institute of Mental Health, 2009) I believe that there are still years and years of research, studying, and treating Schizophrenia, but with the technology today and knowing how advanced it is will definitely help those who suffer with this disease on a day by day basis. Part A Drug Abuse Alcohol abuse is having the habit of drinking on a daily basis at any time of the day. A disease in which a person has a strong need for alcohol, and it interferes with everyday life. This addiction can also lead to liver, circulatory, and neurological problems. A pregnant woman can also harm her unborn fetus.
Behaviors that show signs of alcohol abuse are: Drinking at any time of the day, feeling guilty after drinking, making excuses for drinking, blackouts, and worrying about not having enough alcohol. The outcomes of alcohol abuse are: failure to fulfill personal obligations, work obligations, or problems with the law. Genetic factors do play a role in alcoholism and they include: The amygdale, which is an area of the brain that plays a role in the emotional aspect. (craving) Inheriting a lack of warning signals. (Repeated exposure to alcohol) Serotonin (neurotransmitter) high levels of tolerance for alcohol.
Dopamine (neurotransmitter) high levels of D2 dopamine are known to inhibit behavior responses to alcohol. Withdrawal symptoms begin within 6-48 hours after the last drink. During this time brain activity that is caused by alcohol is reversed, the central nervous system will also become overexcited. Symptoms for withdrawal include: Insomnia, irritability, and aggressive behavior which can sometimes be extreme, nausea, sweating,tremors,seizures, and hallucinations. In Ron’s case, admitting that he is an alcoholic is the first step to treatment, but he continues to abuse it. He has had a difficult life and alcohol could be his ay to escape his problems. Alcohol may make Ron happy and has a good feeling when he drinks. This comes from a neurotransmittercalled dopamine that is the happy feeling response that Ron gets when he drinks. There is treatment for alcohol abuse and can include medication and counseling. Three medications that are available for treatment: Naltrexone, Disulfiram, and Acamprosate. Naltrexone is for the brain to reduce the “craving” feeling for alcohol. Disulfiram is for making a person feel sick after drinking. Acamprosate works to reduce the symptoms of anxiety and insomnia. Counseling along with medication seems to e the best treatment for an alcoholic. Part B: Anorexia Anorexia Nervosa also referred to as Anorexia is an eating disorder as well as a Psychological disorder. A person with this disorder can face life threatening weight loss because of the fear of gaining weight. (Pinel, 2007) According to the U. S. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH),”an estimated 0. 5%-3. 7% of women will suffer from this disorder at some point in their lives. ” Beth has a caring home plus a stable one with parents who love her very much. It seems that her condition stems from a negative self image. She is not able to control her eight loss and her parents need to be careful how they approach her. Putting too much pressure on Beth may make her disorder worse than what it already is. Researchers suggest that a gene at chromosome 1p is involved in being able to determine the susceptibility to anorexia nervosa. (Medicine Net) There is also other evidence that a dysfunction of the brain, (hypothalamus) that contributes development of anorexia nervosa, plus an imbalance of neurotransmitters. (Medicine Net) Three are treatment options for this eating disorder and one of them is medication. The medications that can reduce the need to starve one self is Zyprexa, or Zydis.
It is used to stabilize mood and is also used to treat Schizophrenia. This is also stated to help the weight increase and of course to help with the emotional symptoms that come with Anorexia Nervosa. Another is Serotonin Reuptake inhibitor antidepressant drugs. These help with weight maintenance after weight has been gained back and when mood and anxiety stabilizes. And then there is cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, group therapy, family therapy, and individual therapy. In family therapy, The Maudsley model works with the family of the person with Anorexia Nervosa as a part of the solution and not the eason why someone suffers with this disorder. This helps This approach also helps the individual to eat better and more healthy. A start of treatment for Beth would be family therapy since she is still an adolescent. Beth has no control with her disorder and it seems her parents also need to be educated about this disorder so that they can help their daughter. Also gaining weight is another sort of therapy for Beth to consider if she is that underweight. Gaining 1 to 3 pounds per week would be a safe way if malnutrition needs to be worked on, and of course nutritional management is very important nce Beth works on everything eles. It will also be important for Beth to learn to accept herself for who she is so that she can lead a happy and emotionally healthy life. End of Analysis I have enjoyed providing you with my knowledge and research of this biopsychological paper on Schizophrenia, Alcoholism, and Anorexia Nervosa. Everyday we learn something new and I hope to share my knowledge as well as my ideas with yours if I am given the opportunity with this position in your company. It has also been a pleasure being given this opportunity to submit my paper for your review.
Schizophrenia (no date) Schizophrenia Retrieved April 21, 2010 from http://www. schizophrenia. com/disease. htm National Institute of Mental Health. (2009).
What Causes Schizophrenia. Retrieved April 21, 2010 from http://www. nimh. nih. gov/health/publications/schizophrenia/what-causes-schizophrenia. shtml Pinel, J. P. J. (2007).
Basics of Biopsychology. Boston, MA About Health Topics (no date) Alcoholism. Retrieved April 21, 2010 from http://adam. about. com/reports/Alcoholism. htm Medicine Net (2009)
Anorexia Nervosa Retrieved April 22, 2010 from http://www. medicinenet. com/anorexia_nervosa/article. htm