The example of precis. The extract from the novel “To kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee is a dramatic account of a trial of a Negro, Tom Robinson, wrongly accused of a capital crime of raping a white girl. His defending counsel, Atticus Finch, a smart lawyer and a man of high principles, does his best to prove to the jury Tom Robinson’s innocence. Atticus exposes the false testimony of the chief witness for the state who turns to be the guilty party and condemns the Negro’s accusers for their prejudiced attitude and groundless resentment against the black people.
Atticus reminds the jury of the high mission of a law-court to be a great leveler and appeals to them to do impartial justice. But for all Atticus’s convincing arguments and his spirited speech the truth is ignored and Tom Robinson – convicted. Features: – 4-5 sentences; – Generalize the climax in 1 sentence; – Retell of contents precisely and briefly; – Epithets; – Less verbs; – No action, only state of facts. The example of summary. The extract under consideration is taken from the novel “Ragtime” written by the American writer E. L. Doctorow. The scene of the novel is laid in America at the beginning of the 20th century.
There is no exposition, therefore we can only guess by the contents where and when the settings set on. At the beginning of the story, the author shows the appearance of a black man at Broadview Avenue. He looked for a colored woman Sarah, who was said to reside in one of the houses. The author introduces that man by his appearance and manners, describing his new gleaming and shining model T-Ford, the way he beckoned a boy with a gloved hand to ask abut Sarah’s address. Further on, the author dwells on the main reason of the black man’s coming – to meet with Sarah.
The author introduces Mother, the hostess of the house, where Sarah worked and lived. When she opened the door, she saw that black stocky man, who looked very respectfully. He asked for the permission to see Sarah, but the girl (being very resentful) refused to see him. The author points out the fact that Mother was outraged when she saw the black man in the kitchen, kneeling beside the carriage and staring at Sarah’s baby. She asked him to leave. The author touches upon the fact that Coalhouse Walker Jr. (that was the black man’s name) appeared every week asking for Sarah and receiving her refusal to see him.
The author mentions that once he left a bouquet of yellow chrysanthemums that made Mother regret Sarah’s intransigence and invite Coalhouse Walker Jr. to take tea with them. Then the author passes on to describing the scene when the man took tea in the company of Mother and Father. The author shows the natural manner of behaviour of Coalhouse Walker Jr. , the way he told about himself that he was a professional pianist, who located in New York, had secured a job with the Jim Europe Clef Club Orchestra and who was through going on the road.
The author points out that the man’s story which was intended for Sarah, irritated Father and made him ask Coalhouse Walker Jr. to play. After that the author describes the way the black man played the piano, that the ragtime gathered the entire family. The author dwells on the boy’s impression of the music and also Sarah’s who listened it with the door open on the 3rd floor. In conclusion, the author draws our attention to the fact that when the last piece was brought to a conclusion, everyone applauded. The author makes a few ironical remarks on Father’s mentioning about loon songs that spoiled the situation.
Though Father didn’t intend to be rude, but the author points out that it hurt Coalhouse Walker Jr. ’s feelings and made him leave the house, only having gazed at the baby asleep in the carriage, ignoring the present family and having said good-bye. Features: – general view on the story; – the main point of view – the author’s; – the scheme: 1. In the novel (extract, story) under consideration: 1) the story opens with … 2) the scene is laid in … 3) the opening scene shows (reveals) … 4) We first see (meet) him (her, etc. ) as a student of medical college (a girl of 155, etc. ) 3.
Then (after that, further on, further, next) the author passes on to … (goes on from… to, on to say that … gives a detailed (thorough) analysis (description, etc. ) of …, digresses from the subject, etc. 4. 1) in conclusion the author… 2) the author concludes with… 3) the story ends with… 4) to finish with, the author describes… 5) at the end of the story the author draws the conclusion that (comes to conclusion that .. ) 6) at the end of the story the author sums it all up (by saying, etc. ) 7) the concluding words are… The example of gist. Gist – is the central idea, the essence of the story, the main points of the story.
Basically, it is a 20 word summary of what was read. Students use the five Ws and H (who? what? when? where? why? how? ) to write a very brief summary. It is a clear vision of the article (story) and is written in a higher-level manner. Gist is a semi-accurate summary written in sentence form. The story “Doctor in the House” is one of Gordon’s twelve “Doctor” books written in the 60s of the 20th century and is noted for witty description of a medical student’s years of professional training at a fictional medical college in London, St. Swithins. GIST Submitted by NWREL Staff Traits: Comprehension
Grade Level: Middle School (6-8), High School (9-12) Time: Varies Supplies: • Select a text to practice summarizing. Make copies of the pdf file GIST handout Objectives: • Students distinguish between significant and supporting details. Students summarize and paraphrase with purpose. Lesson Description: This activity asks students to squeeze meaning into a tight, precise summary. The goal of GIST is to have students convey the “gist” of what they read by summarizing the text in 20 words or less (Moore, Moore, Cunningham, & Cunningham, 1994, page 125). Students work to revise their summaries until they meet the 20-word goal.
The activity forces students to discard extraneous details and focus their reading on what is really important. Discuss the criteria for a good summary with the class. Here is one set of sample criteria for summarizing: Include only essential information—delete trivial and repetitious information. Collapse lists into broader categories. If the passage lists the achievements of Robert Fulton, Alexander Graham Bell, and Thomas Edison, collapse the names into the category of “inventors. ” Use existing topic sentences of each paragraph or create a topic sentence that describes each paragraph.
Focus on conveying the information through key words and phrases. Don’t be afraid to revise your summary. What to Do: 1) Ask the students to read a short section of no more than three paragraphs. 2) Ask the class to remember important ideas from the passage and list them on the board. 3) Work with the class to condense those ideas into 20 words. 4) Ask students to read a second short section. Create a 20-word summary that incorporates information from both the first and second sections. 5) If you feel ambitious, have the students repeat the strategy with a third section.