Epidemiology:
According to research Poliomyelitis, also known as polio is an infectious
disease caused by the poliovirus. Poliomyelitis is an acute communicable
disease caused by any of 3 poliovirus serotypes (types 1, 2 or 3). In the pre-vaccine
era when poliovirus was the leading cause of permanent disability in children,
almost all children became infected by polioviruses, with on average 1 in 200
susceptible individuals developing paralytic poliomyelitis. Polioviruses are
spread by fecal-to-oral and oral-to-oral transmission. The virus enters the
body by way of the mouth, invades the bloodstream, and may be carried to the
central nervous system, where it causes lesions of the gray matter of the
spinal cord and brain. Oral transmission of the virus is seen mostly in places
where sanitization is poor

Pathogen:  Research show that Polioviruses are human enteroviruses
of the Picornaviruses family. The 3 serotypes of polioviruses have different
antigenic sites in the capsid proteins. Polioviruses share most of their
biochemical and biophysical properties with other enteroviruses. They are
resistant to inactivation by many common detergents and disinfectants,
including soaps, but are rapidly inactivated by exposure to ultraviolet light.
Viral infectivity is stable for months at +4 °C and for several days at +30
°C.2. Type 1 was most often the cause of epidemics. Infection from one type
does not necessarily confer protection against the other 2 types. Type 2 is eradicated
globally and type 3 is being distributed intermediately hence cases occurred of
people having a second attack. All 3 types are included in the vaccine. Most
vaccine related cases are type 2 or 3 (WHO, 1996). (Record, 2016)

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 Type
1 was most often the cause of epidemics. Infection from one type does not
necessarily confer protection against the other 2 types. Type 2 is eradicated globally
and type 3 is being distributed intermediately hence cases occurred of people
having a second attack. All 3 types are included in the vaccine. Most vaccine
related cases are type 2 or 3 (WHO, 1996).

Disease:  According to research, most people infected
with poliovirus do not have symptoms; viral replication in the pharynx and
gastrointestinal tract results in virus excretion in saliva and feces. In some
individuals (approximately 4%) with this minor illness, signs of meningeal
irritation develop, with neck stiffness, severe headache, and pain in limbs,
the back and the neck, suggestive of aseptic meningitis (non-paralytic polio).
This form of polio lasts between 2 and 10 days and in almost all cases recovery
is complete.

 According to the WHO the world health organization,
paralytic poliomyelitis is rare and result only when poliovirus enters the
central nervous system by peripheral or cranial nerve axonal flow and
replicates in anterior horn cells (motor neurons) of the spinal cord. It is
observed in

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