Eisenmenger syndromeaffects teens and adults with certain congenital heart defects that arerepaired late or not repaired at all. It includes a collection of symptoms:cyanosis, pulmonary hypertension and erythrocytosis. Children born withpulmonary hypertension could start to show symptoms. Symptoms related tocyanosis could show in younger years in these children.      According to Stanford Children’s Health itdevelops over time because of the effects of pulmonary hypertension. Thispulmonary hypertension, occurs because of congenital heart defects that causeblood to flow from the left to right side of the heart. Congenital heartdefects of this type include Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), Atrial septal defect (ASD), Ventricularseptal defect (VSD), and Atrioventricular canal defect (AV canal). If thepulmonary hypertension continues the pressure in the right side may rise to thepoint that is higher than the left.

If this occurs, oxygen-poor blood and oxygen-richblood will mix and pumped from the left ventricle. This reversal doesn’tallow enough oxygen to enter the blood. Thus causing permanent damage in the pulmonaryblood vessels. Doctors may call this pulmonary vascular obstructive disease orsecondary pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) Fibrosis and thrombus may alsooccur.CommonSymptoms of Eisenmenger syndrome include dyspnea, shortness of breath at rest, fatigue,chest pain, heart palpitations, headache, dizziness, paresthesias, and blurredvision. Complications include blood clots, hemorrhage, stroke, brain abscess,and gout.

If any of these symptoms worsen or a new one occurs it could be a warningsign and you should seek your doctor’s advice promptly (Health, 2017). To diagnose Eisenmenger syndrome the doctorwill first do a physical exam. Then he or she may order tests such as, bloodtest, a chest x-ray, an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG), anechocardiogram(echo), cardiac catheterization, or a magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) (Health, 2017).

Thetreatments for Eisenmenger syndrome used will depends on a few things. The ageof the patient, health and medical history, the magnitude of the disease andthe advancement, tolerance of the medications used, the procedures to beperformed and the therapy afterwards.Medicaltreatment involves medications, oxygen, and phlebotomy. The treatments are donein hopes of reducing the pulmonary artery pressure, enhancing the oxygen levels,and reducing the levels of cyanosis and erythrocytosis. Some people that arehealthy could live to be fifty to sixty years old. Unrepairedcongenital heart defects are usually not treated by fixing the original defect.If the treatments are no longer working, a transplant of the lungs could be approached.

Ifsomeone has Eisenmenger syndrome need to be aware of some concerns such aspregnancy, anesthesia, surgery, if travel by air sufficient water intake andoxygen will be needed, no smoking or alcohol, all coughing needs to becontrolled with a strong suppressant medication, get a flu shot every year, andtalk to a doctor about the pneumococcal vaccine. Any changes in tolerance ofexercise, shortness of breath, chest pain, or heart palpitations, especiallywith activity needs to be reported to the doctor so they can do a more in-depthexam. Severe headaches, dizziness, fainting, or any problems with consciousnessneeds to be taken seriously and the patient needs to be seen by a doctorimmediately (Health, 2017).   References Health, S. C. (2017). Eisenmenger Syndrome. Retrieved from Stanford Children’s Health: http://www.stanfordchildrens.org/en/topic/default?id=eisenmengers-syndrome-90-P08482    

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