Educationis an enlightenment, which explores a person’s distinction between the conceptsof right and wrong.
Make a person familiar with not only the purpose ofeducation, but also make him / her to learn more about logical thinking,correct attitude, behavior, and creating knowledge and independence. When thereis inspiration to achieve revolution, there is scope for improvement everywherein the world. Innovation can be encouraged that recovers students and teachers.Teaching and learning are interrelated. A very effective and useful way tocalculate good teaching is the amount of knowledge acquired by the studentthroughout the process. .
Thereare consistently positive links between student classifications regarding the”amount learned” during a semester and greatly evaluate the teacherand the subject itself (Cohen, 1981; Theall and Franklin, 2001). Thomas Angelo also have given a similar idea, when hedescribed; “if there is no learning during the teaching, then it is equivalentto just talking”. An instructor’s efficiency is all over again just about, howmuch student has learned during instructions. Throughout the world, people are looking to education topave the way for a more just social order on the grounds that educationinstills in young critical human values such as equity, tolerance and peace.Progress in education is essential for sustainable development, environmentalprotection, improvement of maternal, child health and participation indemocratic social and political processes. Learning and teachingis concern for the instructor teacher. Learning is a complex process.
It can bedefined as a change in behavior; a relatively permanent change in behavior overtime, in part because of experience. Learning can occur as a result of newlyacquired skills, knowledge, cognition, facts, principles, and new informationat hand (Adeyanju, 1997). Learningcan be reinforced with different teaching and learning resources because theystimulate, motivate as well as focus learners’ attention for a while duringthe instructional process. In addition to helping studentsremember important information, learning resources have other advantages. Whenused properly they help to gain the attention of students. Teachers must keepin mind that they are like ideas sellers, and many of the best sales techniquesthat attract the attention of potential customers are worth considering.Clearly, the main objective of each teaching is to students to be able toretain as much knowledge of the subject as possible, especially the mainpoints.Drs.
Rita and Kenneth Dunn (quoted in Rief & Heimburge,1996:5) describe a number of elements that make up a person’s learning style.These include environmental elements such as sound, light and temperature;sociological elements such as being peer orientated, pair orientated, teamorientated, self-orientated and authority orientated; emotional elements whichinclude motivation, persistence, responsibility and structure; and finallyphysical elements such as perceptual/modality strengths, time of day, eatingand drinking needs and need for mobility. In keeping with the elementsdescribed above, learners may be classified as auditory learners, visuallearners, tactile-kinesthetic learners and analytical or global learners. There are also various learning style models which attemptto identify the learning styles of people through the use of learning styleinstruments.
Felder (1996) outlines four such models in his article ‘Matters ofStyle’, namely, the Myers- Briggs Type indicator (MBTI); the Kolb learningstyle model; the Hermann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI) and theFelder-Silverman Learning Style Model. As with learning patterns, there arealso many classifications for teaching styles. Gracha (1996) describes fiveteaching styles in his book “Teaching with Style”. These are: theexpert; the official authority; the personal model; the facilitator; and thedelegate styles. Each preference has advantages and disadvantages, and itsdetails will be discussed in literature review.
Benzi (1998) classifiesteaching styles as assertive, suggestive, collaborative, and adaptive. Thesestyles range from being a focused teacher to a child centered. The utility ofsuch an investigation is enhanced by examining the results of previous researchon similar applications of teaching styles conforming to learning styles.Knowing our learning styles helps us both, teachers andstudents. We can develop better educational strategies for education in orderto allow students to effectively and efficiently absorb new information andknowledge. Understanding learning patterns can be used to identify andimplement better educational and learning strategies. However, one of thecontinuing challenges and problems faced by university educators is related tomatching teaching strategies with patterns of student learning for effectivelearning. Although teaching is a useful means of imparting and sharingknowledge, it does not always lead to learning; this can clearly see thepainful disparity between what we believe we have learned effectively and whatstudents indicate they have learned on exam papers.
Learning has been shown tobe an important variable in student achievement, how students learn, teachereducation, and interaction between students and teachers (Whitkin, 1973).Because of the diverse learning patterns found in students entering highereducation institutions, it is important for teachers to identify learning styledifferences and integrate teaching strategies that meet the learning needs ofall students.According toWinbrenner (1996: 49), the most effective way to convince students withlearning difficulty is to create awareness through teaching to the pattern oflearning power. This means that there should be a complex relationship betweenteacher teaching strategies and students’ learning preferences. Healso states that learners should be taught about them learning methods, so thatthey are able to act intelligently when learning seems to be tough for them.
Many schools, colleges and universities are trying to recruit effectiveteachers so that students are enhanced learning experience. In addition, theyare trying to explore and identify many innovative teaching styles in order toenhance their teaching experience. According to the requirements of course, theability of students, availability of resources, and many of the availableteaching methods that coaches can implement in their classes, in order to raisestudent performance.Education is now the most important contributor to national economic growth.
Empirical evidence suggests that educational investment has been one of themost important factors contributing to economic growth in both developed anddeveloping countries.Haddad et al. (1990), for example, suggests that expenditureon education contributes positively to labor productivity and the economicreturn on education from a public and private perspective is high. Improvingaccess to and quality of basic education is a priority in almost every low andmiddle income country.
Similarly, Raudenbush & Wilms (1991) and Lockheed& verspoor (1991) argue that increasing the pace of economic and socialdevelopment in developing countries must teach most school-age children thebasic skills of the primary curriculum, which include literacy, numeracy,communication skills and solve the problem skills.As early as 334 BC, Aristotle said that each child possessesspecific talents and skills and observed individual differences in youngchildren. In the early 1900’s, many personal theories and individualdistinctions were developed. These focused in particular on the relationshipbetween memory and visual or oral teaching styles. Research in learningpatterns declined because of the emphasis on student IQ and scholasticachievement. In the latter half of 1900, however, there was renewed interest inresearch learning styles and many teachers were trying to apply results withinthe classroom. In the past, research on teaching and learning in universitieshas focused on teacher behavior rather than learners. However, some studiessuggest that what students do in order to learn like adopting different methodsof interaction with educational materials is of great importance (Dunn andGriggs, 2000; Shuell1986).
As a result,educators have developed “learner-centered” or”pupil-centered” pedagogical styles that have greatly influenced ourunderstanding of university education and teaching (Fayombo, 2014; felder &Brent, 2005; Yoder & Hochevar, 2005). Case studies, discussions,discussions, classroom / blended learning, teamwork, questioning, simulation,role-playing, games, video simulation and other use to actively engage learnersin the learning process and achieve educational outcomes. In the past twentyyears, the study raise on learning styles, theoretical and applied, at a timeof great interest, but also controversial full of opinion among both academicexperts and those who are learning independently. The concept of” style”is displayed in psychology by Adler (Abud Kramar, 2001) in the term”lifestyle”, but the question of style becomes a source of concern,especially in the psychology of scientific current in the second half of thecentury.
Currently, the present literature frequently with theoretical modelsand experimental studies designed to lead to a better understanding of how todecipher strategies codes and methods of learning. Since the theoretical premisesthat generate their authors are different. Moreover, a growing number of psychologists have embraced the idea thatlearning styles have a great cognitive component, a personal side, and thecontext of one and the premise that they started them is that the explanationis the student’s choice of learning strategy specific at the intersection oftwo areas: Context and individual characteristics.Learning is an indispensable element of human life. No onecan survive in this world without learning. A man is a social being; he has tolearn in order to lead his life better. Learning does not mean only the productor outcome that regulates the formal and non-formal education process as awhole.
It is a process of rebuilding experience and modifying existingknowledge in the light of prior knowledge. Learning is one of the mostimportant criteria in a successful or unsuccessful educational organizationdeclaration. The learning method is the natural or usual pattern of a personacquiring and processing information in learning situations. The basic conceptis that individuals differ in how they learn. The idea of ??individual learningpatterns originated in the 1970s and has greatly influenced education.Supporters recommend the use of learning styles in education that teachersevaluate the learning patterns of their students and adapt their classroom metthem. Although there is abundant evidence of differences in individual thinkingand methods of handling different types of information, few studies havereliably tested the reliability of the use of learning styles in Education.
Critics say there is no evidence that determining the learning style of anindividual student produces better results. Learningprocesses vary from person to person because of biological and psychologicaldifferences. Sitt-Gohdes (2001) sees most teachers teach the way they havealready learned. This may have frustrated many learners as they see that manyteachers do not count for many teachers. The situation is more serious in acontext where students come from diverse educational experiences and withdifferent cultural backgrounds.Similarly, learners also learn in different ways, soteachers also teach in different ways.
In fact, effective teaching requiresflexibility, creativity and responsibility to provide an educationalenvironment capable of responding to the individual needs of the learner andachieving good academic achievement and educational outcomes (Tulbure, 2012). Accordingto (Fayombo, 2014) It is important for teachers to understand the learningstyles of students as well as students to understand their own learning styles.By understanding different learning styles, teachers may gain insights intoways to make academic information easier for a variety of learners, andincreasing awareness of individual learning methods can help educators conveynew information in an unforgettable way (Brady, 2013). Students were aware oftheir favorite learning patterns will be able to recognize the strengths andweaknesses, by doing so; they can then develop strategies for effectivelearning.
Humans have adapted to theirenvironments throughout history. These adaptive patterns have allowed us tosurvive in these environments. Although we have evolved as part of theadaptation process we, as humans, are different; the concept of one size fitsall is inadequate, especially with regard to the way we learn or the learningprocess. One example is the concept of learning patterns. If the instructors recognizethat students are different, assuming that, based on research on learningtheories and learning styles, that each student has a preferred learningenvironment, identifying student learning patterns can provide a vision forteachers to help facilitate a more appropriate learning environment for allstudents and may improve academic performance. Infact, recent research indicates a genetic effect, or “clock gene”,which is associated with peak alarm time. Learning patterns have beenidentified as an important component of e-learning development, delivery andeducation, which can lead to improved student performance (Shih & Gamon,2002; Davidman, 1981; Archer et al.
, 2003).Graham, Garton, and gowdy (2001) said that the method oflearning was found to be an important variable in student achievement, howstudents learn, teacher education, and interaction between students andteachers (p. 31). If trainers recognize that students are different, and ifthey assume, based on research on learning theories and learning styles, thateach student has a preferred learning environment, identifying patterns ofstudent learning can provide insights to And trainers to help facilitate a moreappropriate learning environment for all students, and potentially improve academicperformance. The preferred way in which anindividual approaches a task or learning situation, thelearning/cognitive style or approach or strategy, has beencharacterized and explained in several waysbased on a variety of theoretical models. Riding and Cheema (1991) proposed abroad categorization of style according totwo fundamental dimensions representing the way in whichinformation is processed and represented: who list/analyticand verbalizer/imager; Riding and Rayner(1998) considered learning style within the framework of personality-centered,cognitive centered and learning-centered approaches; twoadditional examples of specific theories founded inthe approaches to learning style model are Kolb’sExperiential Learning Theory which focuses ongrasping and transforming experiences (Kolb & Kolb, 2009) and thePerceptual Learning Styles theory which deals with multiplemodality preferences and how individuals interact withinformation and conduct learning tasks (Davis, 2007). Other theorists commonly provide anoverview of various models generally referred to as VAKVisual-Auditory-Tactile/Kinesthetic; but alternatively by extension referred toas VAP (Visual-Auditory-Physical), VARK(Visual-Auditory-Reading-Kinesthetic) or VAKT (Visual-Auditory-Kinesthetic-Tactile)(Felder, 1996; Felder & Brent, 2005; Fleming, 2001; Wooldridge 1995). Theseauthors offer a comunderstand learning styles; that we process information through our sensorymodalities visual, auditoryand kinesthetic; most people possess a dominant or preferred learning style;however somepeople have a mixed and evenly-balanced blend of the three styles and finallythat no one hasexclusively one single style or preference.
The present study adapted the VAKVisual-Auditory-Tactile/Kinesthetic (or Kinesthetic) to assess theparticipants’ learning styles andcategorize them into the different modes of learning styles. A very important contributionto progress in knowledge of learning styles have been brought by classifiedstudies in cognitive and constructivist paradigms. They have allowed thedevelopment of a highly prolific line of research that led to a betterunderstanding of this concept, which led to the development and implementationof effective tools and techniques of intellectual work. Smith and Dalton (2005) believe that learning is adistinctive and usual way of acquiring knowledge, skills or attitudes throughstudy or experimentation, and that the learner’s approach tends to be morestable across different learning tasks and contexts. In the same context, thecharacteristics of teachers are quite diverse as their students and teachingstyles fluctuate not only to match the discipline they teach, but also theobjectives of the course, and the way they learned said by (Clark & ??Latshaw,2012). The teaching method by definition is the teachers approach put intopractice to implement teaching and learning activities. Educational methodsaffect the personality of learners, the learning environment, and the overallimplementation of classroom learning.
Tucker, Stewart and Schmidt (2003)suggests that research to address the match between learning patterns ofstudents and the teaching styles of teachers in education needs more attention.In the research conducted and their participation with print workers, almostall contributions from developed countries, particularly Pakistan, wherebusiness schools are emerging very quickly. Therefore, research is necessary tohelp teachers understand the importance and effects of teaching and learningmethods to help them determine the learning patterns of their students.Furthermore, the results of the study help teachers to plan teachingmethodologies, approaches, and strategies that meet individual learningpatterns of students. As a result, it will facilitate teachers’ templates forteaching methods, practicing alternatives, and transforming their strategies tomeet diverse learning situations.Schools, institutions, colleges and universities must adoptlearning theory based on classroom approaches. Different learning theoriesexist, and caution should be exercised during selection. Learning theories mustbe tailored to the needs of materials, such as cognitive, behavioral, andconstructional theories.
The quality of teaching is measured by the effectivenessof the learning method followed by the chosen teacher to achieve learningobjectives in a particular subject. However, given that teachers usually do notknow which approach will be the most effective, the measure of teacher successleaves students (Benke and Hermanson, 1988). The relationship between thecurriculum used and what students learn can be seen as a process in whichteachers’ beliefs influence about teaching strategies that in turn affectstudent learning patterns.Rudd,Baker, and Hoover (1998) acknowledged that there are many differences betweenstudents that are readily observable and recognizable, such as race, sex, age,and academic ability (p. 18) and that individual learning methods are noteasily recognizable by these simple observations, That teachers tend to teachthe way they are taught and usually have a limited understanding of differentlearning styles.
Each person has a preferred method of learning so-calledlearning method. This is a unique way to solve the particular problem. This research is used to explorethe teaching and learning styles at the graduate programs of public and privateuniversities.