Educationis a deliberate effort directed towards the transmission of accumulated wisdom,knowledge and skills from generation to generation imparted in the four wallsof the school or outside the classroom (Achimugu, 2000). There are nearly sixbillion people in the world and world’s population day celebrated 11thJuly every year. Rising rate of population in third world countries is majorissue and there are many discussions and debates on this topic. Governmentsand international organizations have made efforts to boost women’s educationlevel around the world over the last few decades.
According to the World Bankwomen’s education is the “single most influential investment that can be madein the developing World”. Now many governments supporting women’s education toincrease economic growth and also increasing their potential level, promotesmaller families, promote and increase child health. In this regard, educatingwomen is an important factor. Female education has a great influence onchildren she has. According to Goldstein (2003), the actual number of childrenremains below than desired number of children in all European countries. But inall developing countries situation is opposite. Sustainabledevelopment goal number four is related to equal education despite of gender discriminationto ensure all girls and boys complete free,equitable and quality primary and secondary education by 2030.
Globally, literacy rate for male is 90% andliteracy rate for women is 82.7%. Pakistan is among those developing countrieswere literacy rate is very low for female and it is 48% which is notsatisfying. More developing areas such as Baluchistan and Fata are facingserious conditions regarding female education due to many traditional barriers.Gender biased educated class isshackled in traditional beliefs and hungering for a male child. Womenare facing restrictions to get education in rural areas. The violence againstwomen is another factor which restrict them to get education because they arenot allowed to go outside. Giving education to females promote equality and it helpthem to earn handsome amount of salary for living independently, so educationis the best contraceptive because it is the best way to slow down thepopulation.
Poverty is a factor which creates practical barriers to familyplanning. One cause is lack of education and poor living standards of peoplewhere people even don’t know about family planning. Majority of contraceptives are made for female use, familyplanning has to remain a concern and priority of both genders. In most backwardareas even men do not prefer any such kind of planning in their families. So,we can say that education and awareness is best contraceptive and awareness plays a major role in the success ofanything. The link between Education andchildbearing Smallerand healthier families are result of female education and more schooling. Smallerfamily size is associated with the more women education throughout the world. Accordingto UN report women with no education have double the number of childrencompared to those women who have ten year or more education.
Fertility rate offemales with low education level differ from country to country. According tostudies, across the world countries with high literacy rate and high femaleeducation have low fertility rates as compared to those countries who have lessfemale education and they have high fertility rates. But same time some studiesproved that females with high education level have same number of children,women’s with less education. Researchers suggest some National frameworks whichare: Universal educationFertilitylevel drops more rapidly in those areas where female education is high. Femaleschooling is extensive or primary schooling is nearly general. Even thosefemale deprived of much formal education will be exaggerated by the changingcommunity standards concerning reduced family size. Schooling regularly risesthe expenses of having children.
Experienceto the mass media Some research believe that Universal educationmay be less critical to fertility drops than in the past. Researchers believethat a number of factors, with radio and television experience may besatisfying some of the character that worldwide schooling played in the past. Forte ofthe family planning programs A durable family planning program encourages abridged,healthier families. Even educated women may have a hard time restrictive thenumber of children they have if the facilities that they need, includinginformation, counselling, and supplies are not accessible. Employmentopportunities If the female labor force participation ishigh and females are more educated and they are offered high wages then it willcause less fertility cases in the society.
More income attracts the workers andwith more children it is hard to get and continue job for any women, so thefertility rate declines with the high level of income. With less children it iseasy for females to continue and focus on their job and career. Educationreduces family size Decision making process is not easy in any wayfor anyone, especially for those who have not attended school or those who havenot get basic education. Access to information is very important factor indecision making process. Females with strong comprehensive skills are moreindependent in decision making.
If females are more independent in theirpersonal decisions then it will cause increase in their education level. Withhigh level of education women get information and awareness to control thefertility rate. Thus, education plays an important role to control thefertility and open doors of opportunities for females. The Importanceof non-schooling factors Females with wealthier backgrounds and thosewho are more educated have more understanding of fertility as compared to thosewomen’s who are from backward areas and they are not wealthy. Marrying witheducated husband is also influence the importance of fertility because bothmale and female have better understanding of fertility. Socioeconomic status,educated parents and individual goals also influence childbearing decisions. Thesenon-schooling factors are very important to reduce fertility rate in thesociety. Most of the studies suggest that women’s education is more importantin and has greater impact on fertility rate in the society.
Literacy skillsand fertility Studies suggest that women have more literacyand reading skills in some areas regardless their income and their familybackground and researchers found less fertility rates in those areas. Thosewomen have smaller family size as compared to those who have less literacyskilled females. Equippingwomen to make healthy childbearing decisions Struggles to improve educational accomplishment mustcontinue irrespective of any influence on childbearing practices. Theresearch does not offer any simple formula governing years of education andfamily size.
The possessions of education on women depend upon extensivevariety of social, cultural, and economic factors. Some of the aspects related to contraceptive Lack of knowledge in contraception is also one ofthe major reason to increase or decrease in fertility. Due to lack of knowledgemany women do not use the contraception in their lives and they have manychildren, all because of low education or few information related tocontraceptive use. Socialdemographic factorsMany social demographic factors caused to decline infertility rate in many developed areas across the world where urbanizationincreases and people move toward education, it increases their ability to thinkand helps to make decisions about their lives. In developed cities it isstudied that most of the women spend their time in education and in working. Resultantly,urban women who are employed they have late marriage and they have lesschildren.
They don’t have time to take care their children so in such situationmost of the women prefer to have less children as compared to non-educated andhouse wife women. Women education is major factor that influence contraceptive. Developedor less developed areasAccording to survey reports in less developedcountries shows that women have high number of children as compared todeveloped countries. For example, a study shows that in Afghan refugee’s campsin Pakistan where there is no education and knowledge of contraceptive, theyhave more children because there is no such campaign related to this issue.
People are free to make decisions because of lack of knowledge in these camps(Raheel, 2012). EconomicconstraintsEconomic constraints also plays an important role tocontrol the fertility rate in the society where women are poor and they cannotbear more than two children because of their economic situation. But most ofcases it’s not like that, studies shows that people who are poorer and needythey have more children. It’s also because of less education about theireconomic check and balance because they don’t know how to manage their family’sneeds. Ethnicaldisparities Ethical disparities among different societies alsoeffect family planning and fertility rate. According to Millennium DevelopmentGoals (MDG), diverse ethnic groups face many fences to retrieving family arrangementservices, because of their illiteracy, poverty, and low social status. Cultural factors According to Shah, Srikanthan & Reid (2008) the possible effect ofdifferent cultures and religions on the getting and use of family planningapproaches by couples have been well documented. Religiousfactors According to the National Family Health Service inIndia it is studied that most of the Muslim women have showed less interest in contraceptiveissues despite of other religion women by saying that children are God gifted.
Regardless this study many other religions women also dislike the contraceptivetechniques. For example, Africa and even India’s women do not prefer to followthe contraceptive techniques. It is happening in the less developed areasaround the world where there is less awareness regarding this issue. Fearof side effectsIf women are less or uneducated then there they willless trend towards contraceptive. They will always have fear of side effects incase if they use contraceptive techniques.
According to Sajid and Malik (2010),anxiety of side effects and the trust of being germ-free werereported as the major reasons for not using any contraception in Pakistan. Fearof these side effects have been seen in the urban areas of most of thecountries. If the women are educated then they will consult with their doctorsso that this fear will be vanished.
It’s all because of lack of education. Women’s autonomyGraterinterest towards more education leads towards more interest in contraceptives. Moreeducated women are able to make their own decisions and choices forcontraceptives.
More education leads toward independence and liberty of choicesfor urban and developed countries women. Most of the women do not preferinterference of men in their decisions. Social support Socialsupport is also very important in decision making for the women in the society.In Western societies, women are free and out of this social barrier becausethey do not prefer to ask anyone about their personal issues.
Because most ofthem are educated. But in less developed countries, it’s a social problem thatwomen have to follow their social norms and values that if there is a trend ofmore children in family then every women have to follow that values. So, it’s akind of barrier in society for women and they are unable to use contraceptives. Social stigma and early pregnancy Earlypregnancies after marriage is common among different families because of earlywant of children. Poor negotiation skills and embarrassment impose barriers andrestrictions to access to the health information.
It’s because of lowconfidence, lack of knowledge and uneducated background. Rural people feel moreembarrassment than urban women. Most of the women feel fear when visit to thedoctor that may be someone recognize them and they will be famous for sexuallyactive in the society. Thus, education gives confidence to women in thesociety.
Men and education Educationis the best contraceptive and it is not restricted to female education regardlessof the fact that female education play more important role in this regard. Maleeducation is equally important in birth control. Educated male would rationallyprefer to have lessor children. He would better understand importance oftraining to the children. He has a better vision for understanding theimportance of female education. Health is another important factor thateducated men can better understand. Public outreach campaigns and education Mostof the public outreach campaigns for birth control may effectively result forthe educated class. Despite of the fact vigorous campaigns are launched bydifferent organizations both for educated and uneducated people to sensitizethem about the importance of birth control, such campaigns may rationallyattract more of the educated class than that of uneducated people.
Conclusion and suggestionsThere might bearguments for and against the idea that education is the best contraceptive butarguments in favor of this idea are much more. Education provides womenconfidence, powers of decision making economic opportunities to earn andnegotiation powers within the family. It helps women to consider advantages anddisadvantages of having more children and give courage to them to take thedecisions in this regard.
Social, cultural, ethnic and religious taboos doexist in different societies differently relating to family planning. Besides,there are different misconceptions linked with birth control measures. However,such taboos and misconceptions may only be mitigated with increase in educationamong people that gives them the opportunities to rationally evaluate theadvantages of birth control. Educationchallenges taboos, customs and so called norms which provides people anopportunity for rational reasoning related to birth control. Notwithstandingwith fact that female education might play more important role in contraceptioncampaign’s, male education is also important. It helps men to understand theimportance of birth control and the rationally consider it more important.
Lastly,education provides an understanding that birth control does not solely restupon women, men may also play an important role in this regard. Educated menusually prove more supportive to women in the efforts to control more births. Hence, it can be said that education is thebest contraceptive.