Early YearsNumerous studies regarding both students’ andteachers’ attitudes about not only teaching but also learning environmentsuggested a group of implementations dealing with teaching approaches andactivities (Matron & Booth, 1997; Biggs, 1999; Prosser & Trigwell,1999). At this point, implication of these relations was highly significant tocomprehend value of searching teachers’ perceptions about informationcommunication technologies. Furthermore, Wang and Woo (2007) designed a systematicmodel for successful integration of ICT. According to this model, there was aneed for logical order.
Also, it asserted that a problem related to teachingshould be defined as a first step in order to create systematic learningactivity. After defining the problem, it was essential for teachers to take alltechnological tools into consideration that can be accepted as an appropriatetool in learning context so as to reach certain objectives. Bhasin (2012)proposed a model called cyclical by aiming to seek answers for the followingquestions: (a) Who can apply ICT in classroom? (b) How can ICT tools be usedeffectively in learning contexts? (c) Why do teachers need to integrate ICT totheir teaching process? There is no doubt that a great number of teachers acceptthat extensiveutilization of information and communication technology provides them moreopportunities in teaching and learning contexts.
On the other hand,approximately similar number of teachers claims that ICT implementations arereally difficult to understand. Also, they are unaware of how to use ICTeffectively in order to improve not only students’ achievements but also reach objectives of the curriculum (Sánchez,A.B.
, Mena, J., He, G. & Pinto, J. 2012). Furthermore, Bhasin (2012) insisted thatutilization of ICT is still challenging for many educators. To put it another word,there were some serious obstacles hindering effective application of ICT.
Accordingto Bingimla (2009), most of the teachers are aware of the potentials of ICT,but they face with problems. These main problems were listed as low confidence,technological competence, and curriculum restrictions. According to Derakhsan O. &Dokht A. (2013),teacher confidence was one of the crucial elements since teaching processbecome really difficult to use technology for creating more demandingenvironment because of lack of confidence. Bhasin (2012) insisted that instructors must see technology as a usefultool instead of having negative attitude towards it so as to increase students’success. As it can be understood teachers’ beliefs about technology influencetheir learning habits and styles in learning environments. Therefore, teachers’ perception of technologyuse has had a great correlation with the integration of the technology toimprove quality of education.
Bilbatua, L., & Herrero de Haro, A. (2014) noted that most of the teachers seeICT as an opportunity for different goals. However, they have listed a numberof excuses about accessibility of ICT. That is to say, they claimed that therewas no enough opportunity to reach training programs covering extensive utilization of information andcommunication technology bystudying with teachers from various schools. However, some studies have revealed that somebarriers related to teachers’ belief about technology use can be decreased withthe help of teacher training programs (Sanchez-Garcia,A. -B. et al.
(2013). Also, they stated that teachers have started touse technological tools in their classrooms to improve students’ achievement bygaining confidence towards information and communication technologies. (Ekizoglu N, Tezer M, BozerM, 2011) noted that ICT tools are highly important in learning and teaching contextsfor instructors who have certain knowledge about ICT implementations. With the use of information and communication technologies,both students and teachers have a chance to enhance quality of learning bycombining different learning styles in challenging subjects (Zhelezovskaia L,2016).
Besides, teachers can easily increase their students’ motivation withthe help of ICT tools (Mahdi, Hassan; Al-Dera, Abdullah 2013). To exemplify,ICT provides some advantages to learners. For example, they suggested thatlearners could easily reach different sources instead of depending on only onebook or have an atmosphere where teachers encourages learners to collaborativelearning. Sahin-Kizil (2011) alsoinvestigated that integration of ICT have some positive effects on learners.They found out that several opportunities such as high motivation, willingnessto learn, active learning environment, collaboration among students. Hence, use of ICT in learning and teachingcontexts has attracted attention of many educators from different regionsaround the world over decades. By depending on these developments, Hue and Ab Jalil (2013)discovered that many countries around the world have decided to reshape theireducational systems by integrating information and communication technologiesto their current curriculum in order to create a learning atmosphere wherestudents have chance to learn better and gain some sub-skills such as criticalthinking, being autonomous learners.
Nonetheless, Liu, Theodore and Lavelle (2014)indicated that teachers’ beliefs about technology may affect effectiveintegration of technology. Gorder(2008) reviewed that some teachers usetechnology effectively in their daily lives are more willing to use ICT in aclassroom environment in the study named Teachers’ Perceptions of InstructionalTechnology Integration in the Classroom. At the light of findings, he indicatedconsiderable differences in integration of ICT. However, some variables such asage, educational level, teaching experience, and gender had great impact onteachers’ perception of ICT and integration of ICT in classrooms.2.2 GenderAlmekhlafi and Almeqdadi (2010) found out that therewas a considerable difference between males and females. To explain, maleteachers’ perception of ICT integration was lower than the femaleteachers. On the contrary, Panigrahi (2011)focused on attitudes of teachers towards integration of informationcommunication technologies.
As participants of the study, there were 100secondary school teachers from different schools of Haryana. According toresults gathered from numeric data, gender was not a serious criteria affectingteachers perception towards utilization of ICT. According to Manisha (2012), gendercannot be accepted as an effective variable while discovering instructors’attitudes towards successful utilization of ICT.
Rather, he found out that therewere considerable differences among teachers depending on their age,educational experience, and economic level by studying with secondary schoolteachers, number of whom is 150 from 45 different schools in Northern Goa. Mohammed (2012) tried to discover attitudes of English language teacherstowards successful utilization of information and communication technologies.He observed many teachers in Abu Dhabi Education Council schools located theUAE. According to findings of the study,there was no difference in attitude by experience and educational background inEnglish language classrooms, but beliefs about integration of ICT are low. Narasimhan (2012) investigatedprimary school teachers in order to determine factors affecting teachers’attitude towards ICT implementations. He discovered that female teachers havemore positive attitude than male teachers toward use of ICT in Classrooms fordifferent purposes In contrast; Hung (2016) stated that male teachershave higher readiness in implementing online learning tools than femaleteachers. In the research, he studied with middle school teachers so as tomeasure their readiness by taking the basis of the Teacher Readiness for OnlineLearning Measure (TROLM) into consideration.