Early Years

Numerous studies regarding both students’ and
teachers’ attitudes about not only teaching but also learning environment
suggested a group of implementations dealing with teaching approaches and
activities (Matron & Booth, 1997; Biggs, 1999; Prosser & Trigwell,
1999). At this point, implication of these relations was highly significant to
comprehend value of searching teachers’ perceptions about information
communication technologies. Furthermore, Wang and Woo (2007) designed a systematic
model for successful integration of ICT. According to this model, there was a
need for logical order. Also, it asserted that a problem related to teaching
should be defined as a first step in order to create systematic learning
activity. After defining the problem, it was essential for teachers to take all
technological tools into consideration that can be accepted as an appropriate
tool in learning context so as to reach certain objectives.  Bhasin (2012)
proposed a model called cyclical by aiming to seek answers for the following
questions: (a) Who can apply ICT in classroom? (b) How can ICT tools be used
effectively in learning contexts? (c) Why do teachers need to integrate ICT to
their teaching process?

There is no doubt that a great number of teachers accept
that extensive
utilization of information and communication technology provides them more
opportunities in teaching and learning contexts. On the other hand,
approximately similar number of teachers claims that ICT implementations are
really difficult to understand. Also, they are unaware of how to use ICT
effectively in order to improve not only 
students’ achievements but also reach objectives of the curriculum (Sánchez,
A.B., Mena, J., He, G. & Pinto, J. 2012).  Furthermore, Bhasin (2012) insisted that
utilization of ICT is still challenging for many educators. To put it another word,
there were some serious obstacles hindering effective application of ICT. According
to Bingimla (2009), most of the teachers are aware of the potentials of ICT,
but they face with problems. These main problems were listed as low confidence,
technological competence, and curriculum restrictions.

According to Derakhsan O. &Dokht A. (2013),
teacher confidence was one of the crucial elements since teaching process
become really difficult to use technology for creating more demanding
environment because of lack of confidence. 
Bhasin (2012) insisted that instructors must see technology as a useful
tool instead of having negative attitude towards it so as to increase students’
success. As it can be understood teachers’ beliefs about technology influence
their learning habits and styles in learning environments.  Therefore, teachers’ perception of technology
use has had a great correlation with the integration of the technology to
improve quality of education. 

Bilbatua, L., & Herrero de Haro, A. (2014) noted that most of the teachers see
ICT as an opportunity for different goals. However, they have listed a number
of excuses about accessibility of ICT. That is to say, they claimed that there
was no enough opportunity to reach training programs covering extensive utilization of information and
communication technology by
studying with teachers from various schools.  However, some studies have revealed that some
barriers related to teachers’ belief about technology use can be decreased with
the help of teacher training programs (Sanchez-Garcia,
A. -B. et al. (2013). Also, they stated that teachers have started to
use technological tools in their classrooms to improve students’ achievement by
gaining confidence towards information and communication technologies. (Ekizoglu N, Tezer M, Bozer
M, 2011)  noted 
that ICT tools are highly important in learning and teaching contexts
for instructors who have certain knowledge about ICT implementations.

With the use of information and communication technologies,
both students and teachers have a chance to enhance quality of learning by
combining different learning styles in challenging subjects (Zhelezovskaia L,
2016). Besides, teachers can easily increase their students’ motivation with
the help of ICT tools (Mahdi, Hassan; Al-Dera, Abdullah 2013). To exemplify,
ICT provides some advantages to learners. For example, they suggested that
learners could easily reach different sources instead of depending on only one
book or have an atmosphere where teachers encourages learners to collaborative
learning.  Sahin-Kizil (2011) also
investigated that integration of ICT have some positive effects on learners.
They found out that several opportunities such as high motivation, willingness
to learn, active learning environment, collaboration among students.  Hence, use of ICT in learning and teaching
contexts has attracted attention of many educators from different regions
around the world over decades.

By depending on these developments, Hue and Ab Jalil (2013)
discovered that many countries around the world have decided to reshape their
educational systems by integrating information and communication technologies
to their current curriculum in order to create a learning atmosphere where
students have chance to learn better and gain some sub-skills such as critical
thinking, being autonomous learners.  Nonetheless, Liu, Theodore and Lavelle (2014)
indicated that teachers’ beliefs about technology may affect effective
integration of technology. Gorder
(2008) reviewed that  some teachers use
technology effectively in their daily lives are more willing to use ICT in a
classroom environment in the study named Teachers’ Perceptions of Instructional
Technology Integration in the Classroom. At the light of findings, he indicated
considerable differences in integration of ICT. However, some variables such as
age, educational level, teaching experience, and gender had great impact on
teachers’ perception of ICT and integration of ICT in classrooms.

2.2 Gender

Almekhlafi and Almeqdadi (2010) found out that there
was a considerable difference between males and females. To explain, male
teachers’ perception of ICT integration was lower than the female
teachers.  On the contrary, Panigrahi (2011)
focused on attitudes of teachers towards integration of information
communication technologies. As participants of the study, there were 100
secondary school teachers from different schools of Haryana. According to
results gathered from numeric data, gender was not a serious criteria affecting
teachers perception towards utilization of ICT. 

According to Manisha (2012), gender
cannot be accepted as an effective variable while discovering instructors’
attitudes towards successful utilization of ICT. Rather, he found out that there
were considerable differences among teachers depending on their age,
educational experience, and economic level by studying with secondary school
teachers, number of whom is 150 from 45 different schools in Northern Goa. Mohammed (2012) tried to discover attitudes of English language teachers
towards successful utilization of information and communication technologies.
He observed many teachers in Abu Dhabi Education Council schools located the
UAE.  According to findings of the study,
there was no difference in attitude by experience and educational background in
English language classrooms, but beliefs about integration of ICT are low.

Narasimhan (2012) investigated
primary school teachers in order to determine factors affecting teachers’
attitude towards ICT implementations. He discovered that female teachers have
more positive attitude than male teachers toward use of ICT in Classrooms for
different purposes In contrast; Hung (2016) stated that male teachers
have higher readiness in implementing online learning tools than female
teachers. In the research, he studied with middle school teachers so as to
measure their readiness by taking the basis of the Teacher Readiness for Online
Learning Measure (TROLM) into consideration.  



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