Rise (Mid- 90’s) 1994 was when jungle truly gained its own style when DJs concentrated on perfecting their use of breakbeats. One of the first jungle labels was created by DJ Hype, DJ Zinc and Pascal called Ganja Records (www. junglevoodoo. com).
Releasing the seminal track ‘Super Sharp Shooters’ (see track 07). While the Ganja Records crew were perfecting Jump-up Jungle LTJ Bukeum was busy with a completely opposite, ‘Intelligent’ Drum and Bass, with soft synth washes and up-tempo amen breaks jungle was now also able to satisfy neurologically as well as physically. (See LTJ Bukeum Track 08, Atlantis) Junglists.Its around this time that Junglists as a social group can be seen as coming into their own shedding off the baggage of the Hardcore rave crowd and adopting a new set of stereotypes: Mid-90’s Raver stereotypes Mid-90’s Junglist stereotypes Dress: Bright Colours Dress: Dark, Camouflage Drugs: Ecstasy, Acid Drugs: Cannabis Attitude: Happy Attitude: Serious Originally, many of them were “British b-boys who’d gotten swept up in the hardcore rave scene; others came from the reggae sound-system subculture of the eighties, whose music policy ran the spectrum of imported ‘street sounds’ from dub and dancehall to electro and rap” (Reynolds, 1998, p.255).
Controversy over the origin word Junglist has raged for years, but it probably comes from the term used to describe inhabitants of Tivoli Gardens in Jamaica or ‘The Concrete Jungle’ (Duffield, 2003 p. 38) this controversy eventually led the term Drum and Bass to take over because of the racial connotations of the word ‘Jungle’. However the term Junglist stuck around to describe drum and bass enthusiasts. In 1994 the “stereotypical junglist was a head-nodding, stylishly dressed black twenty-something with hooded eyes, a joint in one hand, and a bottle of champagne in the other” (Reynolds, 1998, 260).From about ’97 onwards saw the gradual move of drum and bass from the rave scene into the club scene. Club Crowds generally congregate on the basis of their shared taste in music, their consumption of common media and, most importantly, their preference for people with similar tastes as themselves. (Thornton, 1997, p.
3) Junglists take this type of elitism to an extreme; emphasis on the music takes priority over all. Knowledge of the music is seen as an important part of being a Junglist (hence the monthly drum and bass magazine being dubbed Knowledge. ) This is mostly due to the adoption of Jamaican Dubplate and Sound-System culture.Jamaican Influence Jamaican dance culture is probably the strongest influence on drum and bass culture, from dreadlocks; a symbol of personal and political opposition to the hegemony and control of the west over the rest (Mercer, 1997) to cannabis and most importantly the concepts of the Sound System, MC and Dubplate. Dubplate: A dubplate is basically, a rare or unreleased track that is pressed onto plastic or acetate rather than vinyl.
“The importing of Music often in small quantities, encouraged the underground aspects of a scene in which outlets to dominant culture were already rare.” (Gilroy, 1997, 343) Soundsystem: Extended versions of the mobile discothi?? que. With, Records became the source of music… a feature in black entertainment since the 1970’s (Thornton, 1997, 47. ) Soundsystems have near mythical status, Currently Dillinja’s self-built ‘Valve Sound System’ (Fig 2) is a staple in the drum and bass community it can deliver more bass per square inch than any other sound system on earth, and they say that the reason Dillinja always wears a hat is to conceal the audio plug in his forehead to control the levels.
(Anecdote from London based drum and bass DJ Fierce. ) The MC: The <drum and bass> MC’s job is a difficult one. He must generate infinite variations on a very restricted repertoire of utterances: all-praise-the-DJ exhortations, druggy innuendos, exclamations of intense excitement, and testifications of inexhaustible faith in the entire sub cultural project.By finding rhythmic and timbral twists to the restatement of these themes, the MC creates that intangible but crucial entity known as ‘vibe'” (www. furious.
com) An example of this is the most prominent Jungle MC Skibadee (Audio track 09 – live recording of radio session) Fall? Rebirth? (Late 90’s to present) In the late nineties dance music magazines such as Mixmag, URB and DJ Mag were prophesising the death of drum and bass.This seemed clear to everyone but the junglists themselves whom just kept on as they were doing, Because the success of drum and bass never passed a few chart entries such as Shy FX and T-powers – Shake your body and its somewhat limited involvement with not just popular music but also dance music it has survived by ” its viral ability to find a place in virtually all genres of music (as evident in the sub-genres), in the coming years, it won’t be so surprising to hear drum and bass used in the palettes of music producers far and wide. ” (www. junglevoodoo.
com).With current producers such as Bad Company (see track 10- dogsploitation) gaining massive popularity in the US, DJ’s such as Goldie making there way into popular British culture and Jungle site breakbeat. co.
uk’s massive following, Drum and Bass culture is seemingly healthy. It has relied on a limited but heavily devoted fan base, its all encompassing qualities have meant that although it cannot reach a musical or cultural apex, it can continue surviving by changing, adapting and surviving. In fact as its namesake suggests Jungle is all about survival.
Reference: – http://www. ubandictionary.com , Author not defined, Accessed March 15th 2004 -“History of Jungle/ Drum and Bass. ” http://www. globaldarkness. com/articles/ accessed February 28th 2004.
-Bliss, Rob. “The Many Faces of Drum ‘n’ Bass. ” http://www. junglevoooo.
com/ archive/archive8. html, accessed March 18th 2004. – Duffield, Matthew. The Knowledge guide to Drum ; Bass Slang, Knowledge Magazine Vol. 2 Issue 40 August 2003. – Gilroy, Paul (1997) Diaspora, Utopia and the Critique of Capitalism, Part of The Subcultures Reader, Edited by Sarah Thornton and Ken Gelder, London, Routledge – Ma-jin-buu. “Life as a ‘Junglist’. ” ;