Driverless cars· Whats Driverlesscars?· Specifications· How will the cardetected the traffic lights?· Technologiesmaking a system fully autonomous· Control ofvehicle· Automated guidedvehicle systems Whats driverless cars? It is a vehicle that can drive itself from one point to another withoutassistance from driver: in other words, with an autopilot system Components· Wheel-speedsensors· Steering-anglesensors· Rotational-speedsensors Specifications EmergencyBrake System – AEBThistechnique is called Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB), which is characterizedby pressure on the brakes in a timely fashion. It is also known that the humanreaction may be affected by many factors, which is not true for this systemwhich uses radar to identify obstacles and obstacles And the pressure on thebrakes automatically to prevent collisions, but experimentsproven thatin difficult weather conditions could you add to other instruments? Ultrasonicsensor in addition to it. Self Parking It may be adifficult task for some drivers, especially the horizontal line between twocars but not for a 360-degree car equipped with sensors and processor. Thistechnology first appeared in its primitive form as an aid to Toyota vehicles inJapan in 2003, allowing the driver to choose The parking area is located on thecontrol screen in front of it, then controls the speed and brakes and thevehicle will guide.But thesituation has evolved today. For example, the BMW-i3, which we mentioned in ourprevious list, is able to stand up without any help from the driver.
Afterarriving at the destination you have already selected, you will automaticallysearch for suitable stops and show them on the screen to choose the place. Thecar is lined up on its own without your help. There are other GPS-based systemsand parking servers to determine the right parking space. All you need to dowhen you arrive at your destination is to get out of the car and go to the lineon its own and when you arriveAdaptive Cruise ControlTheautomated steering system depends partly on the previous techniques. In the endall the technologies contribute to each other in achieving the automaticdriving. The car can with this technology to guide itself while driving anddeal properly with the cars around it. Using cameras, sensors and imageprocessing, the car can recognize the relative velocities of objects around it,not just stationary objects, thereby controlling their speed to suit theirspeeds, as well as directing themselves easily.
Lane KeepingStaying in the “white lines onthe road” path for a car is an important factor to prevent collisionsbetween other vehicles, which is also important in self-driving cars. There aremany systems to perform this task, including the use of the alarm only,including the use of cameras to detect deviation from the track to receive thedriver from the driver and return again, but the systems are ineffective,especially if the white lines are not clear. Today’s technologies rely onspecial cameras and image processing systems in addition to latitude andlongitude calculations so rain and fog are not an impediment to them, and theyalso have a system to balance the driver’s reaction if it is exaggerated. Ethical dilemmasSelf-driving cars will be programmedto avoid collisions, especially for humans. But let’s say someone suddenlypushed a car towards the road, and there was not enough time for the car tostop itself.
Does the car deviate in the path of pedestrian traffic, possiblythreatening the lives of passengers and the lives of others? Will it be able tomake a different decision if it runs before it? Who will be responsible forprogramming such decisions in the car? And what if you do not agree with thesedefault moral estimates – should it be available to override the defaultsettings?although there are doubts about theability of self-propelled vehicles to deal with emergency situations, they mayhelp reduce road accidents.There are doubts about its ability todeal with those decisions. Of course, the car manufacturers are well aware ofall these ethical issues, which is why Daimler intends to hold a conference”Self-Leadership, Law and Ethics”, this fall for the first time, carmanufacturers consult with philosophers and moralists.
Setting standardsThe self-driving vehicle may need tocommunicate directly with each other. But will companies agree on standardtechnical specifications for communication from one car to another?The agreement is the most challengingchallenge for cars without a driver, according to Petro Buggia, car andtransport officer at Frost and Sullivan Research. Security risksModern cars will increasingly rely onmobile and Internet connectivity, allowing live streaming of traffic, music,and social media updates. Car communication may be the basis, but thishighlights security issues. The researchers recently showed how they couldcontrol the Jeep Cherokee remotely, after the penetration of the systemand navigation, which is connected tothe Internet through the mobile phone network. This prompted the FIA ??ChryslerMotor Company to announce a voluntary withdrawal of about 1.4 million vehiclesso this program could be enhanced with additional insurance levels.In a related development, the BritishNCC said that some programs in cars may enable pirates to control their brakesor steering wheel, noting that the attack can occur through radio signals.
Do we really need them?The global success of the BBC’s TopGear program is an indication of how much we love cars and driving. Many of uslike the feeling of freedom and excitement that cars give us, and sitting inthe seat of control is an important aspect of it.But in the world of cars without adriver we will become inactive and non-participants, and the value of the carwill be reduced as a commodity, to become a mere tool for mobility. Where’s thefun in it?Vehicles without a driver may providean appropriate means of transportation for the elderly and people with varyingdegrees of disability, but most experts believe that these vehicles will berestricted to work in urban areas and in specific ways only.”The car is completelyself-contained, where you can program your car to drive somewhere and read anewspaper in the back seat, frankly this is a science fiction for me,”says Giesler.
Future goals and commercially availablevehiclesI strongly believe that the deploymentof cars without drivers will benefit society and increase the standard ofliving, especially in densely populated areas such as Singapore. But eventhough the experimental testing in the Chinese and Japanese parks was verypositive, it is difficult to predict when a driverless car will become areality on a large scale, because it is linked to many elements. Theenvironment must be ready to integrate these vehicles; Governments must have aforward-looking view of the introduction of the necessary technology in thecommunity, such as charging stations and network infrastructure that enablevehicle-to-person connectivity, and make the required changes to future cityplanning Public awareness is needed to ensure that people, both passengers andmen, feel comfortable with driverless driving technology.
The challenge is tointroduce enhanced safety aspects associated with independent cars with loss ofindividual vehicle ownership. Cars will operate within a public transportnetwork, where people can request or “call” a car by an electronicrequest: after the car arrives at your destination, you will start to takeanother passenger waiting. The permanent mobility of independent cars isexpected to shrink by about a third from the number of vehicles on the road. Weare therefore working on how to improve this technology in terms of efficiencyand effectiveness. Singapore is looking into ways tointegrate independent cars into the transport system – a busy city with an areaof ??700 km2 and a population of 5.
5 million. By 2013, the number of vehiclesin the road is more than 974,000. With the recent announcement that theOne-North area will take on an independent testing ground forindependent vehicles, our next stepwill be to test the current capabilities of the vehicle and follow up on publicroad research. These ongoing research will enable us to improve responsemethods for expected pedestrian behavior, and further develop understanding andresponse to road infrastructure such as lane lines, traffic lights and theright to precedence traffic.In general, I hope that in the nextthree years we will see an initial publication of these cars in some form, andI hope that in the community there will be unmanned cars incorporated into thetransport system by 2025.
We still have a long way to go, but we willeventually arrive. How Google’s cars workThe “driver” sets a destination. Thecar’s software calculates a route and starts the car on its way. A rotating, roof-mounted LIDAR (LightDetection and Ranging – a technology similar to radar) sensor monitors a60-meter range around the car and creates a dynamic 3-D map of the car’scurrent environment. A sensor on the left rear wheel monitorssideways movement to detect the car’s position relative to the 3-D map. Radar systems in the front and rearbumpers calculate distances to obstacles.
Artificial intelligence (AI) softwarein the car is connected to all the sensors and has input from Google StreetView and video cameras inside the car. The AI simulates human perceptual anddecision-making processes and controls actions in driver-control systems suchas steering and brakes. The car’s software consults GoogleMaps for advance notice of things like landmarks and traffic signs and lights. An override function is available toallow a human to take control of the vehicle. Proponents of systems based ondriverless cars say they would eliminate accidents caused by driver error,which is currently the cause of almost all traffic accidents.
Furthermore, thegreater precision of an automatic system could improve traffic flow,dramatically increase highway capacity and reduce or eliminate traffic jams.Finally, the systems would allow commuters to do othethings while traveling, such asworking, reading or sleeping Security ConcernsThe widespread implementation ofdriverless cars, as safe as they are designed to be, indeed has some chance inposing as a threat to a passenger. Buyers will essentially have to make apersonal decision as to which is safer: the machine’s calculated decisionversus a human’s natural intuition and discretion. As secure as the car mayseem with its cameras, maps and calculations, computers are never fully immuneto the risks of crashing, malware interference and viruses. At times, airplanesand traffic control systems fail due to such technological anomalies.
The buyermust then weigh the benefits with such a concern. What makes the driverless carvulnerable to this risk? Social Problems InvolvedAfter a great deal of researchregarding this topic, one may deduce that the greatest social and personalproblem related to the driverless car is the fact that it takes away theessence of driving a car. One needs to weigh the benefits of the driverless caragainst the attachment they may feel towards controlling their vehicle at alltimes.
Further, more economically, the success of insurance companies and theirrates rely on human error and vehicular issues. The driverless car may have thepotential to weaken and decrease the number of jobs in such a large market.Such a significant decrease in collisions per year may indeed have a graveeffect on the U.S. economy. Lastly, utilizing the car will be the driver’sdecision to sacrifice some privacy.
Google has refused to endorse simpleprivacy protection. In a letter sent from Consumer Watchdog to the Californiagovernor, “Google’s entire business model is based on building digital dossiersabout our personal behavior and using them to sell the most personaladvertising to us. You’re not Google’s customer; you are its product,”(“Consumer watchdog,” 2012). The fact that one’s movements and destinations canbe recorded and sent back to the Google headquarters certainly does imply thatone’s privacy will be compromised in return for a driverless car.Advantages· Without the need for a driver, cars couldbecome mini-leisure rooms. There would be more space and no need for everyoneto face forwards.
Entertainment technology, such as video screens, could beused to lighten long journeys without the concern of distracting the driver.· Over 80% of car crashes in the USA are causedby driver error. There would be no bad drivers and less mistakes on the roads,if all vehicles became driverless. Drunk and drugged drivers would also be athing of the past.· Travelers would be able to journey overnightand sleep for the duration.· Trafficcould be coordinated more easily in urban areas to prevent long tailbacks atbusy times.
Commute times could be reduced drastically.· Reduced or non-existent fatigue from driving,plus arguments over directions and navigation would be a thing of the past.· Sensory technology could potentially perceivethe environment better than human senses, seeing farther ahead, better in poorvisibility, detecting smaller and more subtle obstacles, more reasons for lesstraffic accidents.· Speed limits could be increased to reflect thesafer driving, shortening journey times.
· Parking the vehicle and difficult maneuveringwould be less stressful and require no special skills. The car could even justdrop you off and then go and park itself.· People who historically have difficulties withdriving, such as disabled people and older citizens, as well as the very young,would be able to experience the freedom of car travel. There would be no needfor drivers’ licenses or driving tests.· Autonomous vehicles could bring about amassive reduction in insurance premiums for car owners.· Efficienttravel also means fuel savings, cutting costs.· Reduced need for safety gaps means that roadcapacities for vehicles would be significantly increased.
· Passengers should experience a smoother ridingexperience.· Self-awarecars would lead to a reduction in car theft. Disadvantages· Driverless cars would likely be out of the price range of mostordinary people when generally introduced, likely costing over $100,000.
· Truck drivers and taxi drivers will lose their jobs, asautonomous vehicles take over.· A computer malfunction, even just a minor glitch, could causeworse crashes than anything that human error might bring about.· If the car crashes, without a driver, who’s fault is it:Google/the software designer, or the owner of the vehicle?· The cars would rely on the collection of location and user information,creating major privacy concerns.· Hackers getting into the vehicle’s software and controlling oraffecting its operation would be a major security worry.
· There are problems currently with autonomous vehicles operatingin certain types of weather. Heavy rain interferes with roof-mounted lasersensors, and snow can interfere with its cameras.· Reading human road signs is challenging for a robot.· As drivers become more and more used to not driving, theirproficiency and experience will diminish. Should they then need to drive undercertain circumstances, there may be problems.· The road system and infrastructure would likely need majorupgrades for driverless vehicles to operate on them. Traffic and street lights,for instance, would likely all need altering.
· Self-driving cars would be great news for terrorists, as theycould be loaded with explosives and used as moving bombs.· Ethical problems could arise which a machine might struggle todeal with. Faced with a choice between plowing into a group of schoolchildrenor going off a bridge and killing all its passengers, what does the vehicle do?Should the vehicle always swerve to avoid animals in the road or alwaysprioritize the safety and comfort of passengers?· Human behavior such as hand signals are difficult for a computerto understand.· How would the police interact with driverless vehicles,especially in the case of accidents or crimes? ConclusionIn conclusion, uponaddressing the mechanics of the driverless car as well as its benefits andpotential issues, it is quite interesting to see how the world will actuallybecome by the year 2040. Is IEEE correct? Will the rite of passage of attainingone’s driver license cease to exist? It is truly in the reader’s discretion todetermine and weigh the impacts that the driverless car will have on society inthe future.
Until then, it is fascinating to see the effects this creation willhave on the states in which it is legalized as well as on the people that havechosen to experiment with it.