describe the expected pattern of children and young people’s development from birth to 19 years, to include: physical development, communication and intellectual development, social, emotional and behavioural development?The aspect of development that children are measured on are social,physical, intellectual, communication and emotional development.Children’s development can be measured in a lots ofdifferent ways . All children willdevelop at different ways and in different rates but the sequence is roughlythe same for example crawling before they walking and running.Social, emotional andbehaviour development; Social development refers to how people develop social andemotional skills across the life with particular attention to childhood andadolescence.
Healthy social and emotional development allow them to form apositive relationship with family, friends, teachers and other people in their life.0 to 9 months;Babies will cry to fullfill their needs and to getattention.Babies start to develop relationships with the people aroundthem right from birth. They responding the voices and start smiling. They arenot comfortable with strangers but they show their love to parents or carers. Theywill start to respond to their name .
At this stage babies are very comfortablewith their routines and may be they going to be upset if their routines arechanged but their emotional reactionsare not last long. They will developstrong bond with their parents or carers.At 6 or 7 moths they will start to communicate using thevoice and facial expression. They can express their likes and dislikes1 to 3;At this stage they will recognize them self in the mirrorphotograph and smile. They enjoying to play with other children or adult butmay be not yet able to share their things with them. Begin to say “NO” to bedtime and other requests.
They copy adults action and words. They hug and kisstheir parents and bring things to show other people. They feel jealous whenthey haven’t got attention and they got upset very easily.At this age toddlers will try to help others like tidy up their things after playing. They like toplay alone and with other children andwhen they play with other children they like to copy each other.
Sometimes toddlers are not feeling very comfortable in frontof strangers or in a new situations. At this stage they want to do thingsindependently and if a toddler is unableto do something he is gettingfrustrated and he may not be able tocontrol his emotions .When they are not in a mood they may snatch toys from others. If u give them a choice to choose something,they may find difficult to choose one thing and its easy for them to choose both3 to 5Children go through many changes from age 3 to 5 yearsChildren understand the idea of taking turns but they do notalways do it. They may developed fears especially at night.
They may haveconversations with themselves. They like to play with other children.Children’s emotions can quickly swing from laughing tocrying for example they may boast a lot and stretch the truth about theirabilities.
They become more cooperative with peers especially in groupactivities but they also may show increased self centeredness and fail to waittheir turns. They have strong desire to do things independently. They like topretend they are other people and to play dress-up. Peer groups are closer andchildren this age may develop a favourite friend. Children are able to share,take turns, and play in groups.
Their play is more involved and includes rolesprops and costumes. They show a great deal of affection toward other especiallysmaller children, animals or a child who is hurt. They usually follow theinstructions. Children this age are better controlling their emotions. Theyenjoy entertaining their parents and other children.
They also like to makethem laugh. They are very proud of their achievements and are not shy abouttalking about them.5 to 7Children of this age group begin to develop key life skillssuch as taking turns, cooperating with others and accepting responsibility fortheir actions. They develop social skill to make friends. They are good mimicthey copy both good and bad adult behaviour. They can communicate well withothers without any help.They understand their own feelings .They are able to usewords to describe their own feelings.
Enjoy playing alone but prefer to play withfriends. They enjoy playing games with simple rules. Sharing doesn’t alwayshappen but play can be creative.They had best friend and enemy, which can change frequently.
Children can be selfcentered during this age but also have the capacity to besensitive to others. They are willing to help when they see someone in trouble.They can manage feelings and social situations with greater independence butthey still need help to resolve their little conflict or arguments. They alsohave a basic understanding of what’s right or wrong.7 to 12 At this age theydevelop a more in depth understanding of hoe social interaction works. Theystarted to enjoy teamwork and got to experience how good it feels tocontribute. They will enjoy socializing.
They show a competitive spirit when playing games. Theywilling to help at home such as cleaning the table after a meal or tidying uppersonal belongings.Children will be increasingly aware of what other may thinkof them. At this age chidren’s friendship become more settled and they havemore friends.12 to 19The teenager may become self-consious as changes in theirbody shape and possibly acne develops as a result of oilier skin so more thananything they need reassurance.Emotional maturity is constantly shifting moving them between childish need and adultdesires. They are not just being awkward for the sake of it. Their bodies and emotionsare experiencing drastic changes.
At this age people find themselves under the pressure ofgrowing up and with increasing expectations from adults. Their self esteem canbe very vulnerable. They want to be independent and beginning the move awayfrom parents and close towards their friends. They become less concerned aboutadult approval and turn instead to their friends. Many teens develop very closefriendships within their own gender.
Most also develop an intense interest inthe opposite sex. They see security in group acceptance and follow peer groupdress and behaviour codes. Having thesame ‘lables’ collecting the same items and playing the same computer games arevery important. Taken out of the emotional security provided by family, they are subject to allthe whims of their peers including potential rejection.
A phase of intense questioning and uncertainty usuallyoccurs as adolescent begin to reappraise parental and community values andbeliefs. No longer are they accepted without question. Each one has to bepersonally accepted or rejected to become part of the young person’s own valuesystem. Parents are sometimes fearful of this increasing questioning and theirchildren’s increasing freedom and independence.Physical Development;0 to 3 years;New born babies have little control over their bodies. Theirmovement depends on series of reflexes as they get older they start to developseries of movements and actions called the ‘gross motor skills’ such ascrawling, sitting, grabbing, pointing, walking, running, rolling, hopping,jumping and so on. They can walking up and down stairs with adult help. Theytrying to feed themselves with a spoon.
In their second year children should have better ability tocontrol their movement. They can push and pull the toys while walking, wavegoodbye and enjoy the picture book. They start to shake head for ‘NO’. They cancrawl upstairs and build a tower of few bricks. In their third year children would start todevelop some ‘fine motor skills’ such as painting, colouring and scribbling.
They would enjoy looking at and turning the pages of book. At this age theyshould be able to use a cup and feed themselves. They can kick the ball veryhard.3 to 7 years;At this age all of a child’s baby teeth are in. Children areable to climb stairs one foot at a time.
They have greater gross motor skillsfor example they can stand briefly on one foot, kick a large ball, throw overhand and play catch with a large ball. They like activitiessuch as peddling a tricycle and swingingon a swing set.They have improved fine motor skills for example they arebetter able to hold crayons and markers. At the age of 4 they can hop usingonly one foot. Running is easier they can stop and start more easily. Theyenjoy climbing on playground equipment.
They can feed themselves with a spoonand fork. They can make shapes out of play dough hold a pencil and writeletters. They can use the bathroom by themselves.Children can walk backwards easily. They can climb up anddown stairs interchanging their feet without help. Their gross motor skills areadvance, they can tumble, skip and easily catch a ball. They can balance at onefoot at least 10 seconds. They can copy shapes and letters, cut with scissorbetter and start to colour within the boundries of colouring book picture.
At the age of 7 children will be refining the skillsdeveloped so far, they will have more confidence and more control over the fineskills such as cutting, writing and drawing. They can skip, rides bicycle, jumpfrom height and climb confidently.7 to 12;Children would start to have hobbies and interest such assports, dance, drama, and songs.
Children will continue to develop and refineof their skills. The girls will start to show signs of early puberty from age10-11 puberty in boys usually start later .They can jump, skip ,hit a ball,climb and swing. They enjoy playing team games.12 to 19;Young people also see many physical developments andchanging the appearance of their bodies. Everyone’s rate of growth isdifferent. During adolescence co-ordination and strength increase greatly andby age 19 or 20 the adolescence has full adult motor capacities.Boys;Adolescence for boys usually begins late then for girls andusually occurs around fourteen years of age.
However at the end of this growthperiod boys are usually bigger than girls. Boys at this age are beginning todevelop sex characteristics such as deep voices and body hair and alsoexperience muscle growth and start to take on a manly physique. Testicle andscrotum growth begins in early to mid- puberty.
Some boys move through puberty quickly while others worryabout their lack of development. These variations can be difficult for slowdevelopers to handle. It’s important that adult reassure them that their rateof development is not related to final physical potential.Girls;After initial breast budding around the age of 10, a girl’sbreasts gradually begin to swell. Their pubic hair will begin to grow darkenand become curlier.
Their bodies become more rounded, developing the curves ofwomanhood.By 13 some girls are almost physically mature but there awide variations in the ages when puberty begins and ends. A few girls may beginto develop early as 8 and others may show no obvious changes until late teens.The average age of the onset menstruation is around 13.Some girls have reached full physical maturity by the age of14 or 15 and some are only beginning the process.
Depending on the age ofpubertal onset, the teen age girl may be almost physically mature at 15 and islikely to be close to her full adult height. She may have a woman’s figurealthough her breasts and hips may still become fuller.Communication and Intellectual development;Children’s communication and Intellectual developmentdepends to a large extent on their own experiences and the opportunities theyare given from the earliest age.
0 to 3 years;Babies watch their carers face especially the mouth and tryto copy its movements. They will show feelings by squealing with pleasure orcrying. Babies will start to be listening to language around them and enjoysongs and games.
Some children will start to speak at 12 months although notclearly.By one and 2 years children will start to put words togetherand their vocabulary will increase. Between age 2 and 3 children will start toused negative and plurals in their speech although they will make errors in their grammar whenspeaking. They begin to realise that others are separate from themselves.
Imitates others and tries out ways of behaving in play. They become moreconfident but still need adult assurance. In the second years children start tounderstand the use of conversation and begin to copy carers. They begin to askquestion and they can use several hundred words by their 3rdbirthday.3 to 7;Children have better conversational skills.
They respondproperly to questions, continue a conversation with an appropriate comment andask questions that lead to conversations for example ‘why did he do that?’Their attention span is about three minutes. They can speak300 to 1000 words. They can sing song and recite nursery rhymes.At the age of 4 theyable to respond to question such as ‘whose’? and ‘why’? They start to useverbs properly in the past tense for example ‘Mummy went upstairs’. They cantalk about things, people and activities not currently happening. A child cangive his or her name and gender.
Children this age know about 1500 words. They can recall astory while following along with pictures in a book. They can explain whatthings do according to their purpose for example play dough is for makingshapes. They know the names of four to eight colours and point them out. Theycan identify their city, birth date and the name of their parents.
They areable to answer the telephone properly. They can use irregular verbs in the pasttense such as went, caught.Children become more social and have wider experiences. Theyask large amount of questions and will be able to talk about things in past andfuture tenses with greater confidence. They will start looking for adultapproval and will be starting to learn how to read. They can understand aboutsameness and different in various aspect of life. They can speak fluently andable to make stories.
7 to 12;By now most children will be fluent in speaking a language.They would be able to transfer information and think in a more abstract way. Atthis stage children will be developing and refining their skills at reading andwriting. They will be more able to think and discuss ideas. They will read tothemselves. They will take a lively interest in certain subjects by nine.
Theirvocabulary will grow if adults introduce them with new words and new ways of usinglanguage. They can speak fluently and can describe complicated happenings. Theycan read out loud and know the different tenses and grammar.
12 to 19;Young people will be selecting and taking GCSE and A levels.They will usually now have a clear idea about their favourite subject. This isthe stage young people want to feel like they belong. Most young people areleaving school and thinking of their career path to take and universitychoices. They will be able to focus on their area of strength and be able todevelop it more.
This is a time of maturing of the mind and behaviours asyoung people develop more responsibility for their thoughts, words and actionsand start to think ahead to future occupations. Their logical thinking abilityis also maturing and they may enjoy practicing their new intellectual andverbal skills through debaiting eitherformally or informally.Q; Describe withexample how different aspects of development can affect one another?When it comes to different aspects of development there aremany example that can describe how it affect one a other.1; If a child is lessdeveloped in reading when it comes to children having reading time on thecarpet in groups they may feel uncomfortable and unable to form friendships dueto embarrassment and low self esteem. This will then affect their language andsocial development. This can cause the child to feel lonely and angry at themselvesbecause they are not at the other children’s level of learning.2; If a childdoesn’t like to share toys, this can cause a problem with social interaction asthey will find it hard to form friendships.
The other children will try toavoid the child that is unable to share, this can affect the emotional andsocial development of the child who is unwilling to share as they will feellonely and neglected and even abandoned.3; If a child isoverweight and obese he will struggle to do PE at school as he won’t have theenergy and will get tired very quickly. This can cause his classmates to beannoyed with him for delaying the class due to his weight and they will bullyhim for it. This would leave the child feeling very hurt, embarrassed and he will lose his confidence and selfesteem . this will then affect his physical, social and emotional development.4; If a child is useto having his way all the time such as eating his lunch whilst watching T.V andwhen the child is at nursery and boundaries are in place this will cause the child to have tempertantrums and become angry.
This will affect his social, emotional and behaviourdevelopment. Ashe will not understand why at home he can watch T.V and eat onthe sofa, but at nursery he has to sit with other children at the table andeat. This will make him frustrated and angry.5; If a child sufferfrom a speech impediment such as a stutter, other children may find difficultto understand them. This can result in limited interaction with other children,resulting in feelings of frustration, annoyance and lack of confidence. Thismay even affect other area of development as they can feel as though they can’tachieve, possibly causing low self esteem.6; If a child sufferfrom depression can experience of loss of interest in social activities, workand life.
They may withdraw socially and can often separate themselves fromothers, which in turn can have a detrimental effect on their ability to makefriends. Withdrawal from lessons can affect cognitive development, withchildren having difficulties in their skills in reading, writing and problemsolving.7; A child withsocial anxiety disorder may cry a lot, freeze or have tantrums. They often fearthe school and classroom environment and avoid participation in schoolperformances. This can result in reduced communicational development, as theymay feel fear talking in groups, starting conversations, taking to authorityfigures and speaking on the phone. They may also exhibit physical difficultiesdue to fears of eating or drinking in front of people, resulting inmalnutrition, low self esteem and insecurity especially regarding performanceand body image which may lead to the development of eating disorders.
8; If a child has aspeaks foreign language as their first and family. Just came to UK to live,this may lead to having language barrier. They may become shy, not verycommunicative, isolated, which affects emotional and intellectual development,further they may have difficulty making friends, which can weaken their self esteem, affecting social and behavioural development.