DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

COVENANT UNIVERSITY, CANNANLAND OTA, OGUN STATE,
NIGERIA.

PET 322

STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY AND
GEOLOGICAL MAPPING

 

BY

 

IGBINEDION UYIOSA DANIEL

 

MATRIC NO.  
15CN0326O

 

23RD JANUARY, 2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.     Name the four principal ways a structural geologist can learn
about structural geology and rock deformation. How would you rank them?

The four principal ways a
structural geologist can learn about structural geology are: field work, remote
sensing, physical experiments and numerical methods. I would rank them in this
order: First is the Field work then the Physical experiment, then followed by
Remote sensing and finally Numerical methods.

 

2.     How can we collect structural data sets? Name important data
types that can be used for structural analysis.

Structural data sets can
be collected through the conventional means of field work that is, remote
sensing data, experimental data and also seismic data.

 

3.     What physical factors controls the state of stress in a rock
that is being uplifted through the upper crust?

The state of stress in a
rock that is being uplifted through the upper crust are controlled by the poisson
and thermal effects.

 

4.     How can we define tectonic stress?

Tectonic stress can be
defined as the deviation from the expected stress caused by tectonism.

 

5.     What forces related to plate tectonics can cause tectonic
stress?

They are colloidal
resistance basal drag, slab pull, and ridge push

 

6.     Why does sandstone fracture more easily than shale when
uplifted?

A sandstone has elastic
properties than shale, and it reacts as a very strong and brittle rock.

 

7.     If we increase the fluid pressure in a sandstone unit, will
the effective stress increase or decrease?

 It will decrease. This is because an elevated
fluid pressure aids lifting the overburden so that the stress across grain
contacts becomes smaller.

 

8.     Why does the differential stress increase downwards in the
brittle crust?

This is because the
differential stress is more difficult to fracture a rock under confining
pressure than an unconfined rock structure.

 

9.     What is the difference between fractures and deformation
bands? Fractures show a loss of
cohesion, while most deformation bands preserve cohesion.

 

10.                       
 Why are large rock samples generally weaker
than small samples of the same rock?

Large rock samples are
generally weaker than small samples of same rock   because they are more likely to contain larger
flaws.

 

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