Definition:Thermal power can also be known as Thermal protection globalpower or solar power plant.ORAs generator is driven by a power and then for generatingthat power a power plant is Required.First we take a power station then through which heat energyis converted into electrical power.So for running a turbine steam is used here.Water is boiled then it turns into steam and then it rotates steam turbine. Which furtherdrives generator.so, in this way whole process is done.
TYPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT:By fuel· Nuclearpower plants:· Foroperating a steam turbine generator we use the generated heat of nuclearreactor. Nearly 20% can be generated by such a type of nuclearpower plants in USA. · Fossilfuelled power plants · can be used for the purpose of natural gas fired plants that further can be used fora combustion turbine or we used it as a steam turbine generator. Electricitycan be generated by heating coal to produce steam . But it has a disadvantagethat it generates an excessive amount of carbon dioxide. Approximately 50% electricity is generated by fired coal plants.· Geothermalpower plants · Here, underground rocksare used for extracting steam.
· Renewableenergy plants or BiomassFuelled Power Plants· Sugar cane be proveduseful after extracting this, methane or any other form of biomass can beused. · Blast furnace exhaustgas is cheaper, having energy density and fuel is low. · Used heat in industrial processes can be re- used to produce power that isfurther used in a steam boiler and turbine.
· Solarthermal electric plants· Forboiling water sunlight is used which in turns used for turning the generator.By prime mover· Steamturbine plants · For turning the bladesof steam turbines steam is expanded and for this expansion dynamic pressure isgenerated. this process is used by all the heavy non-hydro plants.Approximately 80% produced power can be used by steam turbines.· Gasturbine plants if we have todirectly operate turbine then dynamic pressure is used from gases that areflowing.to speed up the turbines we use natural gas.
And it is also used forsupplying energy at peak points when there is the demand of high energy at anexpensive cost as compared to the base load.it can be operated at remote areaseasily.· Combined cycle plants it uses steam boiler and steam turbine andalso another gas which may be turbine that is fired by natural gas. This wholeprocess is done for the generation of electricity.And this process is used for improving the efficiency of plant .
Natural gas isalso used for combined cycles. · Advantages: 1. Fuel that is used in the thermal power plant has lowest cost. 2. Thermal energy can be generated in any environment in the world. 3.
Heat production System is simple compared to other system.4.The whole mechanism has an effective cost. 5. It’s mechanism is quite simple and easy.
6. Here ,used heat cannot be wasted.it can be reused for any other purposes.7.The maintenance of this power plant is simple.
8. Here’ perfect installation is required because water is used as a coolantagent permanently for thermal power plant. 9.
This process can be generated to a very small spaces. Either it requires a smallarea for it’s installation. Disadvantages:1.There is a great production of carbon dioxide in the air.2. The entire environment is affected by the exhausted gases.3.it’s efficiency decreases gradually.
4. A large amount of lubricating oil is required for thermal engines.But it isdifficult to obtain this because it is expensive. 5.now,for cooling purposes a large amount of water as a liquid is used that is the requirementof the nuclear thermal power plant. 6.
forraising the sea water level power station is the possible condition in thermalpower plant.7.Thermalpower plant requires an excessive amountof coal and water.8.thisprocess also gives rise to the extra gases like Nox and Sox and then these are responsiblefor acid rain. APPLICATIONS:Applications for steam power plant are as follows:HeatingPropulsion(mechanism to move any substance in the forwarddirection)MotiveAtomization(to break a substance into fine particles.Cleaning (used to remove extraparticles)Moisturization (used to avoid from dryness)· Humidification(can bedone by heating or cooling)Steam for HeatingPositive Pressure SteamSteam can be produced at positive pressuresgenerally. Mostly it is given above 0 MPaG and temperatures also above 100degree.
Applications of heating can be found infactories while making different food.Heating application can be used in oven.Temperature can be controlled by using any hotliquid such as water.
Steam as Motive FluidSteam can also bedirectly used as a motivational force to move water as a liquid or any otherliquid or carbon dioxide gas or any other gas towards piping..Steam for AtomizationThe process in which we separate two or more fluids mechanicallyis known as Steam atomization . for decreasing the efficiency of combustion andthe number of molecules of hydrocarbons steam is introduced into the fuel.
Steam for CleaningFor cleaning the surfaces we extremely used steam. Aftercleaning the surfaces deposited chemicals are removed. And after that boilercapacity can easily be maintained. Reliability can be enhanced and efficiencycan be improved.
Steam released out of the soot blower nozzle dislodges the dryor sintered ash and slag, which then fall into hoppers or are carried out withthe combusted gasses.Steam for MoisturizationSteam can be used for two purposes at a same time. such as itcan moisturized a mechanism and as well as can generate and supply heat to thesystem. Such as it is used in the paper production as a moisturizing