Deena AlterAP European HistoryPeriod: ¾January 8th, 2018Chapter 21 Homework Packet: The Revolution in Politics, 1775-1815Key Concepts, Terms, & PeopleLiberalism- Representative government & equality before the law and individual freedoms, such as, freedom of the press, speech, assembly, worship, & from arbitrary arrest.Liberty & Equality- Liberty is the quality that people have the ability to make their own choices, & equality is equal rights, status, & opportunities for people.Checks & Balances- Used to make sure one branch isn’t more powerful than the other. Natural or Universal Rights- The French Declaration of the Rights of Man was written in 1789, protecting the rights of life, liberty, & property. Republican- Advocate of a republic, usually opposed to monarchy. Popular Sovereignty- People alone had the authority to make laws based on an individual’s freedom of action.
This system of government meant electing legislators who represented the people.Tithe- Oppressive church tax equal to 1/10th of a worker’s income. Stamp Act- Act passed by the British Parliament (1756) that raised revenue from the American colonies by tax in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers & documents.
Battle of Trafalgar (1805)- Naval battle, which Napoleon’s forces were defeated by a British fleet under command of Horatio Nelson.American Bill of Rights- Political document of the US, which resembles the Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen. It was ratified in 1791 & states the rights of an individual.Loyalists- US colonists who remained loyal to Britain & opposed the war on independence.Constitutional Convention of 1787- Delegates met to revise the Articles of Confederation, but wrote the Constitution as a replacement instead.
Jacobins- Political club in revolutionary France. The members were a radical republican group.Girondists- Group contesting control of the National Convention in France.Reign of Terror- Robespierre use terror to solidify the home front. In special courts, rebels & “enemies of the nation” were tried for political crimes. National Assembly- French Revolutionary assembly, from 1789 to 1791. They passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
Bastille- Political prison & armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Partisan city workers alarmed by the king’s concentration of troops at Versailles. Declaration of the Rights of Man- French Revolution document that stated what the National Assembly considered to be the natural rights of all people & the rights they had as citizens.Sans-culottes- Small shopkeepers that wanted the Revolution to bring even higher changes to France. They did not have a role in the assembly. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman- Called for women to gain a more equal status with men, especially in the form of education, & wanted women to be treated as human beings rather than objects.Lord Nelson- English admiral who defeated the French fleets of Napoleon but was seriously injured at Trafalgar (1758-1805).Edmund Burke- British writer who attacked the Revolution as an application of blind rationalism that ignored historic realities of political development.Marie Antoinette- Queen of France (wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular.
Her extravagance & struggle to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy. She was guillotined as well as her husband.Marquis de Lafayette- French noble who joined the Americans after reading the Declaration of Independence. He aided Washington during the US Revolution.Mary Wollstonecraft- British feminist in 18th century who argued for women’s equality with men & in voting, in her 1792 “Vindication of the Rights of Women.”Thomas Jefferson- 3rd President of the U.
S., & the author of the Declaration of Independence.Robespierre- Leader of the Committee of Public Safety during the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror. He set up laws to execute anyone who is opposed of the Revolution. John Locke- Criticized the absolute monarchy, favored the idea of self-government, & claimed that people have a natural right to life, liberty, & property.Abbé Sieyès- French Roman Catholic abbé, clergyman & political writer. His 1789 pamphlet “What is the Third Estate?” became the manifesto of the Revolution, helping to change the Estates-General into the National Assembly.Louis XVI- King of France (1774-1792).
In 1789, he summoned the Estates-General, but didn’t grant the reforms that were demanded & so the revolution began. Louis & Marie Antoinette were executed in 1793.Estates General- France’s traditional national assembly with representatives of the 3 estates in French society. The calling of the Estates General (1789) led to the French Revolution.What is the Third Estate?- Consisted of the Bourgeoisie & the peasantry. It was 98% of the population. They paid all the taxes & owned 55% of the land.Oath of the Tennis Court- the national assembly swore to never separate and to constantly meet until they wrote a fair constitution.
it came about because the third estate claimed they were the National Assembly, so they invited people from the other estates to help them write their constitutionThe Great Fear- Panic that struck French peasants (summer 1789) & led to the widespread destruction of manor houses & archives.Planned Economy- The government sets maximum prices for products rather than letting supply & demand determine prices. Ration gave everyone an equal amount of something. The government made their own bread so everyone could have some.Thermidorean Reaction- Name given to reaction against radicalism of the French Revolution. It’s associated with the end of the Reign of Terror & reassertion of Bourgeoisie power in the Directory.The Directory- 5-man executive elected by the Legislative Assembly in 1775 after the execution of Robespierre. They supported the expansion of France in foreign lands.
The Directory & its constitution was overthrown by Napoleon in a coup d’etat on November 9th, 1799. Soldiers disbanded the Legislative Assembly the next day.Austerlitz (December 2nd, 1805)- Napoleon defeated the combined Austrian & Russian forces at Austerlitz.
The Austrians withdrew from Italy & left Napoleon control of everything north of Rome, where he was recognized as king of Italy (Treaty of Pressburg).Waterloo- Wellington, with help of the Prussians under Field Marshal von Blucher, defeated Napoleon during this battle (June 18, 1815). Napoleon was then exiled to St. Helena, where he later died.
The Hundred Days- Time of Napoleon’s return from exile on Elbe to the defeat at Waterloo.Louis XVIII- Tried to issue a Constitutional charter which welcomed many revolutionary changes & guaranteed civil liberties.St.
Helena- South Atlantic island where Napoleon’s final home was at after the Battle of Waterloo.Analyzing Geographical ConceptsStudy Map 21.1 and answer the following questionsWhat were the three small British outposts in the Mediterranean Sea and how were they necessary to as well as a reflection of Britain’s military power?The 3 small British outposts in the Mediterranean Sea were Malta, Ionian Island, and Gibraltar. These small British outpost were necessary during France’s Continental System by stopping trade of France and their allies, as well as Britain to smuggle in goods. This reflects how strong Britain’s military power is because Britain was able to succeed against France, failing the Continental System.
What did these outposts mean to Napoleon’s efforts to stop British trade with Continental countries?It meant that he could bring the “nation of shopkeepers” to its knees. It was ultimately a failure.