Decision-making process for
low-involvement products are relatively very short, it starts with the need
recognition and ends with the product purchase. For high-involvement decisions,
consumers must go through the evaluation stage in which different alternatives
are evaluated and compared against each other. Some consumers may heavily weigh
the availability of the product and the payment method, and consider them as
evaluative criteria. The backpack at store M is cheaper than N, but M is located
in a shopping mall while N is store located on way to work, and they are too
busy to go to the mall. Several more relevant decisions are made at this stage
if they are big-ticket items. For instance, if a consumer is buying an iPhone
X, she may go to an authorized Apple Store with the guaranteed warranty service
from Apple rather than a local electrical device store which offers a lower
price.

                          

Stage 5. Post-purchase Use and
Evaluation

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At this stage, consumers will know if
the product they purchased is everything it was supposed to be. If it is, they
satisfy with what they bought and are likely to create advocacy for the brand.

If it is not, the post-purchase dissonance (buyer’s remorse) is very likely to
occur. Obviously, dissonance happens if a product or service does not perform
exactly like what they are advertised. Fancy ads will make consumers
expectations go beyond what the product can really offers. Dissonance often
occurs with relatively expensive products that are only purchased on occasion.

 

Consumers who experience dissonance
often regret that they should have spent more time searching for more
independent information, or waited to get a better bargain, spend that money on
something else useful. When this occurs, this is the problem for the sellers
and may create adverse effect for the brand. Consumers may end the B2C
relationship with the brand by stopping buying anything from that brand again.

Even worse, consumers may create bad word-of-mouth by telling everyone how
terrify the product was.

 

Firms implement many programs to
prevent consumers to experience dissonance. For relatively inexpensive items,
companies may provide a money back warranty or they may inspire their salesman
to compliment their customers for their choices. For bigger items, companies
try to appear as much helpful as possible, e.g., quality guaranteed program,
guideline booklets, a toll-free hotline to call when you encounter problems or
a forum with several admins who are ready to answer all of customer’s questions.

 

Companies often attempt to lower
customer’s expectations on the purpose to more easily satisfy them. Service
firms such as restaurants often apply this technique. Consumers are more
satisfied if the hostess tells them that their table will be ready in 30
minutes, but they are seat in 15 minutes. Likewise, if the waitress tells consumers
that their meal will be finished in 20 minutes, yet consumers have to wait for
10 minutes, they will be very likely satisfied.

                                   

Stage 6. Disposal of the Product

 

Previously, nobody paid attention to
the disposing process of products, so long as people purchased them. Nowadays,
it is changed. The way products are disposed has become extremely vital to
people and the community. Products which are hard to self-destruct such as
electrical devices (computers and batteries) have been concerned most because
their chemicals damage the ground. Consumers and firms have become aware of
this problematic situation. Take Crystal Light, a special kind of beverage that
needs water to be drinkable. Apart from the usual form “liquid stored in the
bottle”, Crystal Light offers consumers the concentrated form that consumers
manually add water to transform it into drinkable liquid. Therefore, consumers
do not need to purchase and discard of the plastic bottle. Windex is another
example of this practice. Consumers can buy the concentrate and add water
whenever they are run out of window cleaner. Or in some supermarket such as
Mega Market that now sells shopping bags that can be reused rather than keeps
using and dispose of plastic or paper bags.

 

Companies whose sales revenue depends
on the durability of their products. Simply put, if their products are too
good, consumers will rarely replace them with newer versions. Therefore, these
companies are more concerned about planned obsolescence instead of
conservation. Planned obsolescence is a policy of manufacturing consumer goods
that quickly become obsolete and need to be replaced. This can be achieved by
constant updates in design, termination of the supply of spare parts, and/or
the use of non-durable materials. This can be seen as a strategic goal of the
company to boost sales by encouraging consumers to upgrade their products.

Constant innovation in design or functions, and release of new items keep
themselves attractive in the eyes of consumers, and remind the marketplace
about their existence. Take Google, the release of Google Pixel smartphone is
the dead announcement for Google Nexus generation. The approximate length of support or the end-of-life
(EOL) dates were set for all of Nexus devices. Google released new update of
Android e.g., version 7.0 Nougat and version 8.0 Oreo while Nexus devices are
allowed to update to version 6.0 Marshmallow, this will lead to the
incompatibility with the older software versions. Another obvious example of
planned obsolescence is Microsoft Word. Formatting functions in MS 2007 are
different from that of MS 2013 which does not allow consumers to open documents
properly. As a result, people are more likely to upgrade the present software
version1.

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