Concussion in Ice Hockey By Improving HelmetsDaniel Xian (Daniel H. X)Stoller Middle SchoolCONCUSSION IN ICE HOCKEYAbstractThis paper shows how Ice hockey helmets can be improved to reduce concussion rates. This improved helmet will be made of substances like Sorbothane and polycarbonate plastic. Sorbothane can absorb up to 94.7% of the shock vibration and turn it into heat energy (Church, n.d, p.1). This is only one property of this amazing material. Polycarbonate plastic is 25x stronger than plexiglass and is already used in riot shields. This material is also resistant to extreme temperatures (Warren, Miller, Livingston, etc,n.d, para. 3,4). These materials make the best fit for ice hockey helmets.CONCUSSION IN ICE HOCKEYConcussion in Ice Hockey By Improving Helmets”64% of concussions in ice hockey happens with player to player contact” (n.a, 2017, p. 1). Concussions are not a slight injury. This functional brain injury can take up to 6 weeks to heal. In these weeks, the patient can have a poor memory, have nausea, looking dazed, and many more problems. Due to this fact, parents are thinking about pulling their child out of this sport which is not letting their children pursue their own wishes. Can Helmets can be improved to reduce concussion rates.There is only one fatality in the whole National Hockey League (NHL) on ice in for over 100 years of playing. Ice hockey had no helmets until the late 1920s (n.a, 2011, para.3).Bill Masterton slammed his head on the ice and caused him to lose consciousness, he never awoke. His death is the first/ only fatality in NHL history (n.a, 2011, para.3). Red Kelly started wearing helmets after leaving the Redwings the Toronto team, Maple Leafs. This inspired over 200,000 players to wear helmets by 1964. After this event, Kelly said “They wear it in the bantam, midget, and peewee leagues but not in the juniors,” Kelly complained.”If more players wore it in the NHL, you’d see the same thing happening in the junior and other leagues” (n.a, 2011, para.3). On June 1, 1979, The NHL made a rule that everyone entering the NHL from that day have to wear helmets (n.a, 2011, para.3). In the 1980’s, the plexiglass visor got improved to the point glare and fogging was almost eliminated (n.a, 2011, para.3). The NHL wasn’t so safe until 1979 due to the lack of helmet usage. The helmet has improved a lot since the 1920 but still, it’s not good enough. Even now, the helmets don’t prevent serious brain injuries.CONCUSSION IN ICE HOCKEYConcussions are no small injury, they can be a pain for many weeks. A concussion is when the brain gets slammed into the inner walls of the skull. Normally, there is a fluid that protects your brain from everyday bumps like when you jump (“Concussion – Topic Overview,” n.d, P.1). A concussion is a functional brain injury, not a pathological one which means it will damage the brain’s functional systems (“What Is a Concussion,” n.d, p.1). Concussions can cause slow response, dizziness, trouble sleeping, looking dazed and many more effects (“What Is a Concussion,” n.d, p.1). Concussions are functional injuries that can happen when the brain gets slammed into the inner wall of the skull. This injury also brings many annoying effects like nausea. Helmets are used to minimize impact to reduce injuries. Shock that does permanent brain damage can be reduced to almost nothing with helmets. Helmets were originally made to prevent skull fractures (Marcantuono, 2017,para.1). When a helmet is tested, it is tested for all different types of parts like the visor and the main helmet to maximize effectiveness (How they Work, n.d, para. 14). The helmet can’t protect against all impacts so a ice hockey helmet can’t do anything is it is hit too hard (How they Work, n.d, para. 2).Helmets can protect from many injuries but they are still some things that they can’t do.Sorbothane, one of the world’s most shock absorbing material that is hoped to be used in the future. This Extremely shock absorbing material can absorb 94.7% of shock energy and turn it to heat energy (Church, n.d, p.1). Sorbothane can also dampen over 50% of vibration energy (Church, n.d, p.1). Sorbothane’s operating temperature range is -20° to +160° Fahrenheit (-29° to 72° Celsius) (Church, n.d, p.1). This super material is hoped to be used in war and sports to prevent injuries with its perfect characteristics.There are many strong plastics but polycarbonate plastic is the star. Polycarbonate plastic is the toughest plastic that is also very impact resistant. 25X Stronger than plexiglass (Warren, Miller,  CONCUSSION IN ICE HOCKEYLivingston, etc,n.d, para. 3,4). This plastic is also strong in a wide range of temperatures (Warren et al. n.d, para. 3,4). Polycarbonate is in riot shields and used in federal buildings (Warren et al. n.d, para. 3,4). Altho many plastics are strong, polycarbonate plastic is the best for ice hockey helmets. With the ability to withstand the coldness of the ice rank and be 25x stronger than plexiglass, this would be the best material to make an ice hockey helmet. Helmets will be improved to reduce concussion rates in sports. Helmets in ice hockey were not forced to be used until the June 1,1979. Concussions are not a small injury, it can cause damage to many different symptoms. Helmets now are meant to prevent skull fractures and bleeds but not concussions. One of the world’s most shock absorbent material is sorbothane that can absorb 94.7% of the shock energy. Rightnow, the strongest plastic is polycarbonate plastic that is already used in riot shields. This research will be used to make a ice hockey helmet that will be the most shock absorbent and have the highest chance of preventing a concussion.CONCUSSION IN ICE HOCKEYReferences”A short, heads-Up history of the Hockey helmet.” Detroit Athletic Co. Blog, 2 Nov. 2011, Injury Safety Tips and Prevention. (2017, March 14). Retrieved January 12, 2018, from Church, D. (n.d.). Sorbothane Overview. Retrieved January 23, 2018, from Concussion – Topic Overview. (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2018, from How they Work, and What Standards Do. (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2018, from K., J., Warren, L., Energy, H., Miller, A. M., Livingston, K., Saba, R., . . . M., W. (n.d.). Is Makrolon Polycarbonate The Strongest Plastic in Sheets? Retrieved January 15, 2018, from -plastic-in- sheets/ Marcantuono, N. M. (Ed.). (2017, May). Why Wear a Helmet If It Can’t Prevent Concussions? Retrieved January 16, 2018, from What Is a Concussion? (n.d.). Retrieved January 22, 2018, from