CONCEPT TO CHANGE-2 CATEGORY OF COMPETENCY Core Competencies – Core competencies are those competencies that any successful employee will need to rise through the organisation. These Competencies would generally relate in some way to the business of the organisation. Key Competencies – Key competencies contribute to valued outcomes of the organisation, defining the abilities of individuals to meet strategic demands, and are important not just for specialists but for all individuals. Critical Competencies – Critical competencies are competencies without which the organisation will be unable to achieve its goals and strategy. ImplementingCompetency Management plays a very vital role.while trying to put it in place,it is important to have a clear line of difference between Skills andCompetencies as well as the different types of competencies needed in theorganisation. It is also extremely important to categorise theCompetencies and then decide upon investment decisions in core HR initiatives,such as Development, Workforce Planning, Career Management, etc.
, since they arebased on initiatives that will deliver sound Return on Investment in nearfuture.Personalattributes mostly required by theemployers are loyalty, commitment,honesty andintegrity, enthusiasm, reliability, personal presentation, common sense,positiveselfesteem, A senseof humour, a balancedattitude to workand home life,an abilityto deal withpressure, motivation andadaptability. How canthese attributesteachwithinthe teaching process?DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SKILL &COMPETENCYSkillsvs Competencies The terms Skills and Competencies areused, virtually, interchangeably. Infact, with many HR practitioners, Competencies seem to only relate to”Behavioural” competencies as defined in a Competency Dictionary. But this really is not the case. So, we make an attempt at defining thedifference between Skills and Competencies, and providing some insight into thedifferent types of Competencies and the level of criticality of Competencies inorganisations.An example of this in an IT contextis “Programming”.
To effectively write acomputer program one needs good analytical, logical, and interpretive abilityas well as the skill to write the program in a specific language. But underlying the ability to use that skilleffectively is analytical, logical and interpretive ability – those areCompetencies. Basic differentiate between skill& competency KNOWLEDGEThis is necessary to do the job andtends to be job related. It includesprofessional knowledge, institutional knowledge (e.g. knowledge to be anaccountant, academic, engineer, IT specialist etc.
). This is what people need to know to do theirjobs. SKILLSSkills are needed to perform yourfunctional role and include technical skills, management skills i.e.
to manageresources and people (e.g. project management, time management, planningprocesses, budget management and appraisal). competencyThese are the attitudes and behaviourpatterns that underpin how people do their jobs. Competencies influence howwell people apply their knowledge, technical and management skills. NTU’scompetency framework reflects the culture and values we expect staff todemonstrate in their roles.
EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS DEFINITION Abasicsetofskillsnecessaryforgetting,keepinganddoingwellonajob (Robinson,2000).Skill can be defined as a present, observable competenceto perform a learned behavior regarding the relationship between mentalactivity and bodily movements(Maxine, 1997).Overtoom(2000), defined employability skills as “transferable core skill groups that represent essential functionaland enabling knowledge, skills andattitudesrequiredbythe21stcenturyworkplace… necessary for career success at all levels of employment and for all levels of education” Thesedefinitions were extracted from a number of different sources, but they allseem to say, more-or-less, the same thing: Proficiency, facility, or dexterity that is acquired or developed through training or experience. The ability, coming from one’s knowledge, practice, aptitude, etc., to do something well An ability and capacity acquired through deliberate, systematic, and sustained effort to smoothly and adaptively carry out complex activities or job functions involving ideas (cognitive skills), things (technical skills), and/or people (interpersonal skills). A skill is the learned capacity to carry out pre-determined results A learned ability to bring about the result you want, with maximum certainty and efficiency Proficiency, facility, or dexterity that is acquired or developed through training or experience.So, a Skillis something Learned in order to be able to carry out one or more jobfunctions. Skill is anability to perform a specific task and employability is about having thecapability to gain initial employment, maintain employment and obtain newemployment if required.
Employability skills are “those basic skillsnecessary for getting, keeping, and doing well on a job.” Robinson (2000)Employabilityskills as the skills that can be teachable (Lorraine, 2007) and transferable(Yorke, 2006). Employability skills are referred to asgeneric capabilities, transferable skills, basic skill, essential skills, work skills, soft skill, core skills, core competencies and enabling skills or even key skills (DEST 2007;Yorke, 2006; Knight, P. and Yorke, M.
, 2002; Hiroyuki, 2004). Employability skills are about ‘defining atheoretically ideal employee from an employer’s perspective (ALTC Report,2009).The ILOdefinition of employability skills The ILO defines employability as relating to”portable competencies and qualifications that enhance an individual’s capacityto make use of the education and training opportunities available in order tosecure and retain decent work, to progress within the enterprise and betweenjobs, and to cope with changing technology and labour market conditions” (ILO,2004, Para. I.2(d)).
“Individuals are most employable when they havebroad-based education and training, basic and portable high-level skills,including teamwork, problem solving, information and communications technology(ICT) and communication and language skills… This combination of skillsenables them to adapt to changes in the world of work.” (ILO 2005, Para. 33,Footnote 1)Cognitiveskills of critical thinking: Analysis and synthesis, identify assumptions,evaluate statements in terms of evidence, detect false logic or reasoning,identify implicit values, define terms adequately, generalise appropriately.
Appraise your own and others work. Provide constructive criticism.Effectiveproblem solving and decision making:Appropriate quantitative/qualitative skillsfor identifying, formulating and solving business problems.
The ability tocreate, analyse, evaluate and assess a range of options. Capacity to applyideas and knowledge to a range of situations.Independent thinking to developideas and to find solutions to issues. Abstract reasoning – solve problems andprocess information in a complex and intangible way.
Effectivecommunication, oral and in writing: Ability to interact in intellectual debate,to discuss issues with peers/supervisors, and to express a viewpoint clearlyand concisely in words / in writing. Using a range of media for communication(which are widely used in business, such as for business reporting).Numeracy andquantitative skills: Understand mathematical concepts. Data analysis,Interpretation and extrapolation.The use of models for business problems andphenomena.Effectiveself-management: Time management, planning, organisation and efficiency. Theability to meet deadlines.Self-starting, individual initiative andenterprise.
Autonomy and independent learning.Being adaptable to changingcircumstances.Effectiveperformance within a team environment: Team building, influencing and projectmanagement skills. The ability to be a constructive team member, contributingpositively to a group’s success. The ability to make decisions, motivate andmanage people, and handle a range of tasks simultaneously.Interpersonalskills: Effective listening, negotiating, persuasion and presentation. Abilityto relate well to others, and work successfully with them in a team or as theirleader.Ability toconduct research (in to business & management / economics issues) : Abilityto conduct research individually or as part of a team.
Requiring familiaritywith and an evaluative approach to a range of business data, sources ofinformation and appropriate methodologies, which inform the overall learningprocess.Self-reflectionand criticality: Sensitivity to diversity (cultures, ethical dilemmas, businessand management issues). Principles of moral values and right conduct. Learningto learn and developing a continuing appetite for learning. Reflective,adaptive and collaborative learning.Self-awareness – an understanding of one’sself (e.g.
behaviours and reactions to others).IT skills: Using technology to accessinformation, for analysing and interpreting data and/or research. Usingtechnology to present work in a suitable format and for communication.Use ofspecialist software.Development of IT management systems. CONCEPTUALFRAMEWORK OF EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS Employability skills are all aboutthe ability of individuals to exhibit their skills to the prospective employersand the ability to execute the tasks thereby achieving organizational goals andobjectives. Besides, it also talks about the ability to switch over to otherjobs comfortably. Employability skills refer to specific skills essential foremployment.
These are the critical tools and traits required to perform tasksat workplace. These skills are much sought after these days by employers. Theneeds of employability skills differ from country to country and from sector tosector and from time to time.
However, certain qualities such as communicationskills, interpersonal skills, integrity, right attitude, problem solving,decision making and team building skills can be taken as a few common skills ofemployability skills. In simple Employability skills are the ‘ready for work’skills vital to do the job!Governments around the world havedrawn upon human capital theory (Becker 1975) in the formulation of policy inrespect of higher education. Human capital theory links economic success to theeducation of the workforce. The development of employability in graduates hasthus become significant.
Graduate employability is being thepossession of understandings, skills and personal attributes necessary toperform adequately in a graduate- level job. When considering highereducation’s potential for contributing to the economic well- being it ishelpful to distinguish between the formation of subject specific understandingsand skills and the promotion of generic achievements. Where the world ofemployment has, by and large been satisfied with the disciplinary understandingand skills developed as a consequence of participation in higher education, ithas been less happy with graduates’ generic attainments like literacy andnumeracy, self efficacy and meta-cognition.Now days, the concept of genericskills is widely used in higher education which refers a range of qualities andcapacities of a graduate in higher education context, i.e. capacities toidentify, access and manage knowledge and information; personal attributes such as imagination, creativity and intellectualrigour; and values such as ethical practice, persistence, integrity and tolerance.
Competency and skills were interpreted with adifferent approach. Skill concerns the execution of a single task, whilecompetence deals more with the execution of a whole series of different tasksin a certain (occupational) domain, all of them performed well and in coherenceor integrated consistent core set of desirable attributes, such ascommunication skills, interpersonal skills and team working, problem solving,analytic, critical and reflectiveability, willingness to learn and continue learning, flexibility andadaptability, risk-taking and self-skills and these attributes are oftenindependent of the degree subject. Universities are incorporatingextracurricular activities into their study programme and changing theirsubject to develop specific skills through specialist modules. We also need toidentify the skill set that will best serve the future labor market. In order to enhance competitiveadvantage for graduate employment, students need to develop employabilityskills in addition to the acquisition of subject-specific knowledge and studyprogrammes need to identifying the way of improving that requirement. Personalattributes mostly required by the employers are loyalty, commitment, honestyand integrity, enthusiasm, reliability,personal presentation, common sense, positive self -esteem, A sense of humour,a balanced attitude to work and home life, an ability to deal with pressure,motivation and adaptability.How can these attributes teach withinthe teaching process?Coopers and Lybrand (1998) define’employability skills’ in terms of four key areas: 1).
traditional intellectualskills – e.g. critical evaluation, logical argument; 2). Key skills –communication, IT, etc. 3).
Personal attributes – motivation, self-reliance and4).Knowledge of organisations and how they work. There are several synonyms – core, key,generic, personal transferable skills, common, work or employment relatedskills – this is another of the reasons why it is difficult to conceptualisewhat is meant by employability skills. As conceptualizedbyKatz(1955),the required workplaceskills include technical skills, human skills, and conceptual skills.Technical skills as thoseskills such as the content specific knowledgethe individualmusthave for “understandingof,and proficiencyin,a specific kind of activity, particularly, oneinvolvingmethods, processes, procedures, ortechniques” (Katz, p. 91).Human skills centered onthe leader?sabilityto worksuccessfullywithindividuals and teams while buildingcooperation amongteammembers.Forsuccess in human skills,anindividual musthaveastrongsenseofself-awarenessand theskillof workingcomfortablywithothers.
The third skillrequired wasconceptualskills or theskills to work with ideas andconcepts, and the abilitytobringtogetherand makemeaningofallthe variousfunctionsand roles within an organizationorthe “sensingof theorganizations asa whole”(Katz, p. 93).DelaHarpeetal.(2000)suggestthatthereisconcernworld- widethat existingundergraduateprogrammesarenotproducinggraduateswiththekindoflife -long learningskillsandprofessionalskillswhichtheyneedinordertobesuccessfulintheircareers. TheEightDimensions ofBasic EmployabilitySkills Basedon theliterature,the gap amongemployers,educators,and studentshas continued, and possiblywidened.
Forthepurposesofthis study, then, itis important tomorefullydefinewhat constitutes basicemployabilityskills. Basic Literacyand NumeracySkills:aredefinedintheSCANSreport as theabilityto read,write, speak,listen, and perform basicmathematical procedures.Readingskills include the abilityto interpretwritten information.
Writingskills include the abilitytocommunicatethoughts in letters andreports. Mathematical skillsincludethe abilityto solve practicalproblems through the useof avarietyof mathematicaltechniques. CriticalThinking Skills:include theabilityto think creatively,makedecisions,and solve problems (SCANS, 1991). Leadership Skills:includetheabilityto motivateothers to achieveorganizationalgoals(Schermerhorn, 2008).
Typicalcharacteristicsof effectiveleadership areresponsibility, self-esteem, and theethicalqualities of integrityand honesty. Management Skills:includethe activitiesof planning, organizing, leading,and controllingto meetorganizationalgoals (Schermerhorn,2008). InterpersonalSkills:includetheabilityto workin teams,help others to learn, providecustomer service, negotiateagreements, resolvedifferences,andwork inamulticultural organization(SCANS, 1991). Information Technology Skills:includethe abilityto selectprocedures,equipment,and tools to acquire and evaluatedata (SCANS, 1991). Systems ThinkingSkills:includethe abilitytounderstand and operatewithinsocial, organizational, and technological systems. Designingandsuggestingmodificationsto systems