Cinema was perhaps at its most global as a medium during the early stages of its evolution. Considering the lack of film sound, which as a technology had yet to be invented or incorporated into film edits, filmmakers would have to portray their narratives through a visual fashion. The tools they used included framing, the sizes of shots and the editing itself. Spoken dialogue was not possible at this stage, and due to the lack of verbal language, films could be understood globally. Language was not a barrier, therefore films had no obstruction with the understanding of narrative, regardless of language or culture. For example a mother crying will evoke sadness regardless is you speak English or Korean.
Today world cinema has changed, naturally adopting early revelations in filmmaking techniques through time and adapting to local audience. For example there are stylistic differences between Hollywood and Bollywood that are distinct, but the fabric of the edit of the films had originated from certain beginnings, sharing the evolution of editing to most effectively propel narrative.
One of the most powerful discoveries within filmmaking took place in Russia, discoveries sparked from a series of events ranging through two revolutions from the year 1917. Theories known as the ‘Kuleshov effect’ and ‘creative geography’ were born through an interesting tale. How did these discoveries affect the evolution of the edit?
During the early stages of cinema beginning from the 1890s, films were a relatively new entertainment medium, and given the lack of dedicated film technology at that time, filmmakers had a broad blank canvas to experiment on and work on avant-garde techniques. The concept of moving the camera to produce different perspectives had to be trialed and tested. Shot sizes and cuts were also experimented with. Cinema was in the long process of evolution, many whose emerging techniques and characteristics would originate from various places around the world. Cinema grew up through challenging times throughout history, being shaped and influenced by politics, war and the states of local societies.
Right up until the start of the The Great War in 1914, Europe’s film culture was dynamic and thriving. The impacts of the war upon the film industry etched cinematic techniques still used today. Filmmaking facilities and studios were destroyed in many European countries as a result of bombing during the war. That, along with the enlistment of fighting age men including the filmmakers themselves and their filming equipment brought feature film production practically to a halt. In its place, footage of the war effort, including battles and their effects was shown to theatre audiences. Two of the greatest national film industries affected by World War 1 were Russia and Germany.
In Russia, a second violent revolt against the established Russian government was led by Vladimir Lenin in 1917. Lenin overthrew Tsar Nicholas II due to the extreme class divide in society, and brought the Bolsheviks to power, Bolsheviks meaning the ‘majority’. This great political movement emanated from the lower working classes, who created such a powerful movement through persuasion and force. The result of this revolt brought about the Communist Party, which was organised around the principles of workers rights. The government took control of industry and the suppression of dissent came about, which led to the state developing a great interest in film, as it was seen to be a strong tool for political and social influence. The government had to first work on some areas, it needed to centralise the Russian film industry.
There were numerous production companies before the revolution, which were mostly pro Tsarist. But by 1918, the new Bolshevik government decided to follow the German approach, which was to nationalise the film industry.
In Germany, the government had realised that its film industry was not at the same level as that of France, Italy, the US or the UK. German society was also struggling with pre-war depression and anti-government propaganda. This led the supreme command of the German military to take control over all the major film studios and production companies in 1917. These were all consolidated under one vast state-sponsored entity called ‘UFA’. The plan was to centralise all film facilities, equipment and talent in the country and to shift focus onto nationalist films. This would lead to a more pro-German and pro-government cinema, which in their eyes would help them win the war.
The logical first step for the Bolshevik government would have been to acquire, or nationalise, the film industry. The Bolsheviks were however not powerful enough for this step yet. To solve this, a new regulatory body, the People’s Commissariat of Education (also known as ‘Narkompros’) was assigned to oversee the cinema.
The Bolshevik Revolution created great disruption in Russian life. As communism favoured state ownership of all companies, the existing film firms were anxious of their fate. Various companies collapsed or fled from this movement. Evgenii Bauer, the pre-revolutionary director of the film ‘The Revolutionary’ which supported Russia’s continued participation in World War 1, died in 1917, and the illness of his producer, Alexander Khanzhonkov, ended that company’s existence. Another pre-revolutionary producer, called Alexander Drankov left the Soviet Union in 1918 to try and reestablish his business abroad. The Yermoliev troupe also left the union, fleeing to Paris in 1919 after attempting to produce propaganda films commissioned by the new government.
These production companies took everything they could with them, equipment and raw stock. The problem was that the new revolutionary government had constrained imports, and Russia didn’t have the ability to manufacture its own film stock. These were major blows for Soviet film production in 1918.
This shortage of film stock led to a decree stating that all raw stock held by private firms be registered with the government. The remaining producers and sellers decided to hide what little raw film remained, and as a consequence a severe shortage developed.
Considering the Yermoliev and Drankov corporations had departed, and the Khanzhonkov company had dissolved, a large portion of the Russina film community had disappeared. Bear in mind the Bolshevik government valued the concept of film propaganda, the filmmakers needed to be replaced. In spite of the hardships of war communism, Narkompros had established a state film school in 1919 called ‘VGIK’ or the ‘State Institute of Cinematography’. By 1920, a young director called Lev Kuleshov had joined the faculty, and created a small workshop that would eventually produce some of the era’s most important directors and actors.