ChristinaOpenshawTake Home Assignment 2. To getstarted, your exposure to key concepts will be direct in that you will have todefine them in your own words, before we start using quizzes to make sure thatyou remember what they are. Please write out responses to all of the followingquestions, and submit a .doc, .docx, .pdf, or .

odt document. Yourresponse MUST BE IN YOUR OWN WORDS! Do not copy a definition or discussion fromanother source – not the book, not another book, not the Web. It is not sufficientto demonstrate that you have read the definition. You must demonstrate that youcan provide a definition on your own (i.e. in a job interview). YOU WILL GET 0POINTS IF I FIND A MATCH FOR 4 OR MORE WORDS IN THE BOOK, ONLINE, OR IN THEHOMEWORK OF ANOTHER STUDENT.

In the case of copying between students, bothstudents get 0. 1. Explainthe difference between circuit switching and packet switching and give examplesof forms of communication that use each. (6 pts) Circuitswitching involves the beginning point of the path being able to communicateand establish a connection with the intended destination before information canbe sent and during communication. The connection is only used by thatcommunication but is prone to causing delays. This method was used in analogtelephones as one point made a connection to another before the transmission ofinformation, in this instance communication from one person to another, couldbe initiated. Packet switching, which usually uses the method store-and-forwardtransmission, must buffer information sent from one link to another whilewaiting for all the information to be received before being able to send it onto another link, which is different to circuit switching, but does not reservethe resources. This can allow for packets to be lost but has the benefit ofefficient network bandwidth.

This is why packet switching is used for Internetand network applications that have a need for efficient bandwidth usage.  2. Definethe term “multiplexing” and explain the reason that it is used in communicationchannels. (3 pts) Multiplexingis a method that involves several components which include gathering data,enclosing each data piece that contains supplemental data before the block ofdata to create a data part, and the parts can then pass to a network layer.Communication channels use multiplexing due to the fact that it gathers largeamounts of data, encloses each piece of data with a header, and can direct thedata to routing paths of a network allowing communication within and outsidethe organization.

 3. For eachof the following abbreviations describing a size of network, (a) expand out theabbreviation, (b) give an example or general description of an actual networkto which that label would apply and how it is used, and (c) identify at leastone protocol associated with that size of network: WAN, MAN, CAN, LAN, PAN. (10pts) WAN: A) WAN(Wide Area Network) is a network that encompasses a large area. B) WAN allowsfor businesses and institutions to communicate data to other location acrosslarge distances. C) LAN (Local Area Network) is an example of a protocol usedin WAN to allow for communication from local areas to across large distances.MAN: A) MAN(Metropolitan Area Network) is a network that encompasses an area smaller thanWAN but larger than LAN.

B) MAN allows for businesses and institutions toconnect over a medium distance. C) LAN is an example of a protocol that MANuses to allow communication from a medium distance instead of a small distance.CAN: A) CAN(Campus Area Network) is a network that encompasses a small area. B) CAN allowsa group of building to connect with each other.

C) CAN is a network that makesup LAN.LAN: A) LAN(Local Area Network) is a network that connects computers in a limited area. B)LAN allows for computers for a business or institution to communicate withinits area. C) LAN makes up the connections used by WAN.PAN: A) PAN(Personal Area Network) is a network that sends data to other devices. B) PANallows for devices to connect to larger networks such as tablets to theInternet. C) PAN can be used connect to other networks such as LAN. 4.

For eachof the following standards organizations, (a) expand out the abbreviation, (b) indicate the year in which it was founded, and (c) list at least three Internet standards controlled bythat organization, and, for each, explain its importance for the Internet.IEEE, IETF, W3C. (6 pts) IEEE: IEEE(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) founded January 1, 1963.

IEEE is known for its outreach for education purposes and for their advancementfor electronics which involves the written standards used widely forelectronics which are used to connect with the various networks. IETF: IETF(Internet Engineering Task Force) founded January 16, 1986. IETF is anotherorganization like IEEE which has written standards but instead of electronicsthe standards are for Internet protocol.W3C: W3C(World Wide Web Consortium) founded October 1, 1994. Instead of writtenstandards W3C has developed guidelines that has the aim to allow the growth ofthe web. 5. Explainthe major strengths and weaknesses with respect to performance and cost of thefollowing communication channel technologies (10 pts): a) twisted pair copper wire: The strength of a twisted pairis that it can cancel electromagnetic interference and it is cheap but has aweakness of being easily misshapen and fragile.

 b) coaxial cable: Coaxial cables have several advantageswhich include a larger bandwidth and can handle a range of frequencies thatallows for many channels and greater throughput but has the disadvantages ofnoise for return communication along with a high cost installation.c) fiber optic cable: Fiber optic cables have severaladvantages which include a low loss of power and immune to interference but hasthe disadvantages of not being easy to splice, cannot be bent, and is costly toinstall. d) terrestrial radio transmission: Terrestrial radiotransmission have the advantage of not needing any wire to be installed forcommunication however the disadvantage is that there is a limited range for thetransmission.

 e) satellite radiotransmission: Satellite radio transmission has the advantage of communicatingover a large area but has the disadvantage of being expensive to buildinitially.  6. Definethe terms “throughput” and “delay”. Give examples of factors that contribute toeach. Explain their relative contribution to the time it takes to send a 100Kbit request and receive a 100 Mbit reply. (4 pts) Throughputis the rate at which information is transferred and bandwidth is a factor tohow fast the transmission can be. Delay is the time added to the transmissionof information causing a transmission to take more time which can be caused byhardware or bandwidth. Throughput would be the rate of time for the transfer of100 Kbit to 100 Mbit and the delay would be the time added to that transfer.

 7. List the7 layers in the ISO OSI communication stack. For each layer, a) give the layer’s number, b) give the most common layer name, c) describe the primary concerns of that layer in terms ofwhat it provides or assures, (d) for layers 1through 4 list common protocols used at that layer on the Internet. (8 pts) Layer 7)Application: This layer involves a window that allows users access to thenetwork.

Layer 6)Presentation: This layer involves formats the data used in transmission.Layer 5)Session: This layer involves the establishment for different possessors atdifferent places.Layer 4)Transport: This layer involves the delivery of messages and insures that it isdone without errors. A common protocol for this layer is the transmission ofmessages of data.Layer 3)Network: This layer involves controlling the subnet. A common protocol for thislayer is providing structure and management for the subnet.

Layer 2)Data link: This layer involves data frames and their transfer through aphysical layer. A common protocol for this layer is the transmission of frames.Layer 1)Physical: This layer involves transmission along with reception of data. Acommon protocol for this layer is the transmission and the reception of data. 8.

How doIXPs make money? (3 pts)IXPs makemoney by selling ports where the size of the port usually dictates how much itwill cost. However most IXPs are built through the cooperation of providers toreduce the cost.

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