Child
abuse is a massive problem being widespread in families around the world. Children are considered special priorities and
responsibilities of their parents,(Powell, 1917).  In the urban
and rural communities, increasing cycle of child abuse iscausing many social
problems.Usually, it is a parent / supervision
process, resulting in death, serious physical or emotional loss, sexual abuse,
or exploitation of children, which is provides a risk of serious physical harm
of the child’s physical or emotional health and development.(National. Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and
Neglect Information, 2002).

               Child abuse is a reality. Therefore, everybodywho cares for children, has to pay attention to this troubled social problem. In order to prevent child abuse, the National Committee (1998) estimates that in 1997, about 1 million cases of child-malicious certification, about 8 percent of sexual abuse were victims of violence.               In 2003, 1,549 cases of sexual abuse represent 4 cases per day; 1,184 girls were sexually abused by the end of 2004. The report also indicates that the highest rate of mortality of mothers and children in Pakistan in South Asia, resulting in 10 million children working to get the economy, (Sreeraman, july 06,2007). According to sources of Edhi Foundation, the number of children running home in the past years has increased by 30 percent in the past years, most of them leave home, due to parenting, domestic violence, battering and financial problems, (Kamran,2004).

Globally, child sexual abuse offers up to 2% to 62%,
physical abuse ranges from 4% to 16%, and approximately 10 percent of children
are ignored or emotionally abused. (Gilbert , Widom , Browne , Fergusson & Webb
,2009) .Of
these deaths, so many percentage of parents or guardians, and poverty, mental
health issues, low education achievements, alcohol and drug abuse,or violence
among any other person in the family, These are all major threats to violence
their children (Kahane, Mian, & Furniss ,2006).

            Child abuse may have active and passive
forms; active abuse being the violent acts representing the exercise of physical
force to cause injury or forcibly interfere with personal freedom while passive
abuse referring to neglect, which can only be considered violent in
themetaphorical sense. As it does not involve physical force, nevertheless, it
can cause both physical and emotional injury like failure to thrive in young
children (Browne, 1993). However, victims of child abuse are unlikely to be
subjected to only one type of abuse, for example, sexualabuse and
physical abuse are always accompanied by
emotional abuse, which includes verbal assault, threats of close confinement
(such as locking a child in a room), withholding the food, and other aversive
treatment Within each type of abuse there is a continuum ofseverity ranging
from mild to life threatening risk (Browne & Herbert, 1997).

            Child abuse is
a redemption term that includes physical abuse, inadequate care and food,
depriving of medical care, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and negligence.There are four different types of child abuse,
physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, Sexual abuse
is described in an activity as a child’s involvement, which does not understand
the child and is unable to consent. There are many forms of childhood sexual
abuse. Sexual abuse can be involved A lure by a beloved relative or it is a
violent action performed by a stranger. Sex It can be taken due to abuse, due
to many different types of reasons, it may be difficult to admire Different
levels of frequency, if it changes conditions, it may occur, and different
relationships that may link to it. Malts (2002) gives the following
Appreciation: “Sexual abuse occurs when a person prevails and exploits
another Sexual activity or advice means ”(Maltz,
2002; p. 321).

               RaticanExplains childhood sexual abuse: Any sexual activity, more or invisible between the child and an adult, (or more than a child, where the small child’s involvement is gained by greed or wages). Childhood sexual abuse has been explained about avoiding it, it usually has significant negative and wide psychological effects on its victims. As a sexual abuse of the child, it is stated that “to save child involvement in any sexual relation with the child to prevent the use of force, danger, or unemployment, or any sexual contact with the child. , Which is unable to consent due to the age, disability or the difference between power. “,(Retican, 1992).

Physical abuse is the physical force against a child
that damages for the health of the child. Physical abuse usually leads to lack of an adult as a result of an
accidental injury.
These processes are characterized
by excessive physical violence or more punishment (including more heat or
cold-cord), and usually occur in the discrete, low-frequency association,
(Kelly, 1983; Wolfe, 1988). In
addition, physical abuse often occurs with parents in front of the child who is
due to failing to meet the parent’s demands. (Abrams, 1981; Kelly,
1983).

               The study shows that individuals who are affiliated or physically abused are formed. There is a problem with aggressive behavior and disappointment behavior and social relations as well as being in their spouse. Experimental research on child abuse, in fact, said that abusive children are having serious evidence of problems with the emotion regulation, and indicate that the result of this mistake by parents is inadequate instructions or modeling. Children who are in danger of physical abuse are those who are more likely to promote offensive and frustrating behavior,(Teisl & Cicchetti, 2008).  

Emotional
abuse or inother words psychological abuse is incidents where the child is
isolated, or caregiver doesn’tprovide and appropriate and supportive
environment that includes restriction of moving,blaming, threatening,
frightening, and rejection. Finally,
we have noticed that there is a failure of time by parents or care, which is
unable to promote the child’s development and health, to be healthy, education,
emotional development, nutrition, and shelter safe living condition,(Hull
& Kirst-Ashman, 1994).  

Theories
of child sexual abuse

               A social psychological point in which the family, cultural, social and social factors that are able to understand the relationship between parents and children, is important for children to understand abuse in a broader way.In addition, environmental risks should be understood together with the development phase and the work of children, in which, it is useful to understand the difficulties in focusing on a family center. (Wolfe, 1999; Scannapieco & Connell-Carrick, 2005).

            Finkelhor  is one of the leading ideas of children’s
abuse. He proposed a four element of four conditions for sexual abuse, in which
people about sexuality can participate in integrating different ideas. It
addresses complexity of the organizational framework for attitudes towards
behavior (behavioral behavior), to encourage sexual abduction (etiology of
annoying behavior). One of the main ideologies is the “integrated
theory” that suggests that the CSA is the result of interaction between
the factors of individual, ecological system and conditions, which means that
CSA is a biological, developmental, There can be no interaction between social
cultural and economic factors, (Finkelhor , 1984).

            The
second major theory is “biological theory” in which theories suggest
the organic explanation of human behavior. Biological theories believe that the
physical factors, as it affects the behavior of the hormone and genetic change.
(Berlin,1983; Marshall & Barbaree, 1990).
Androgens enhance sexuality and integration and aggression, feelings and
personality.Researchers have also linked a
relationship between the aggression and the level of high testosterone.
(Rösler & Witztum, 2000; Marques et al., 2002).

            The
third related theory is “Psychological theory”, which specifies that
sexual deviation experienced many problems experienced during the development
phase. Psychology is made of three principal elements, identities and spirits.
When psychological insulation is identifiable, sex innovation occurs.
(Schwartz, 1995).

            The
fourth main principle is the behavioral theory, in which the behaviorist
explained, that sexual behavior is a learning bet. An ideological model of
sexually interactive behavior shows that sexual interaction can be learned
through the same method through which sex is learned. (Marshall 1990).

            The
fifth main theory of CSA is the associated theory, according to which humans
have the tendency to establish solid emotional connections with others, and
when individuals are emotionally victimized, they make the result of their
proportion and installation, (Marshall and Barbaree 1976).

Factors
associated with child abuse

               Child abuse is a multiplying problem, and in order to cope with a collective and multi-level approach, there will be no single dimensional approach to explain the problem. Ideas, research, and social intervention are created by the legal social definition of child abuse, (Wolf, 1999). Anxieties, emotions, stresses, can be sentenced to emotions, it can be likely to abuse (how, 2005).

            A social psychological point in
which the family, cultural, social, economic and social factors that are able
to understand the relationship between parents and children, is important for
children to understand abuse in a broad way. In addition, environmental risks
should be understood together with the development phase and child’s work,
which is considered to be well-useful in focusing on the family center (Wolfe, 1999; Scannapieco & Connell-Carrick, 2005).           

Belsky and Vondra (1989) have identified four varieties
that are associated with the risk of child abuse: dynamic graphic, family
relationships, parent’s characteristics, and child’s characteristics. In
relation to the development of the child, it is necessary that children should
be lifted up with others in a friendly environment, with parents and social
support. Although the rate can change, though all children are in progress. (Aldgate, Jones, & Rose, 2006).

The effect of children’s temperament and their behavior
will influence others to respond to their reaction, and thus it can be said
that the child is active in the formation of its environment while talking is.In this case, there is a development between the child
and its social environment, and in this process can prevent and worsen any
aspect of child development, physical, emotional, psychological, social or
academic. (O’Hagan,
2006).

            In
addition to the increasing risk for serious psychological and mental health
results (children like Gilbert, Weomon, Brunon, Ferguson, Alps, and Jason, S
(2009), Abuse and Disorder often face extra stress. Including your parents,
volunteering care, and many types of modes during their life.(Jonson-Reid,
Chung, Way & Jolley, 2010; Widom, Czaja, & Dutton, 2008).Those who have social
support and / or better results are encouraged to promote the capabilities to
deal with these tricks. The high level of social support protects people from
the stress-stimulating path, but perhaps with relatively low levels of stress
for unusual people.(Cohen & Hoberman, 1983).

Parental involvement and infection in the child’s
emotional and social development is an important factor, which affects the
child’s psychological self-diagnosis.Parents react negatively affect the
child’s emotional development and adjustment. Rejecting  of the parents is linked with many mental
health problems and social adjustments.(Ansari
& Qureshi, 2013; Rohner, 1975),

Parental
acceptance-rejection and child abuse

                    Rohner & Khaleaque (2005)have clarified that parents’ acceptance is due to the presence of warmth and satisfaction and rejection is due to the lack of love and warmth in the child’s life and have a major effect on development of child’s personality. Parents express their love orally or physically by kissing, hugging and caring for their children. On the contrary, parents who reject the behavior of their children dislike their children. Barnow, Lucht and Freyberger (2001)argued that parents’ methods found an important threat to emotional reactions and severe punishment for aggressive and violent behavior in the adolescents. Parents’ negative behavior and child abuse are deprived. The previous investigation has been identified that children have a lot of impact on the child’s abuse with negative behavior of parents.               Parents react negatively affect the child’s emotional development and adjustment. Rejecting towards parents is associated with many mental health problems and social adjustments.Research shows that rejected and mistreated children show lower levels of self confidence, self-adequacy and self-esteem compared to their accepted peers, they can be clingy, possessive, and repeatedly seek for approval, nurturance and attention (Ansari & Qureshi, 2013; Rohner, 1975),And they can also be a high risk of incredible, cruelty, destruction, sexual offense, rebellion and crime of young alcohol and drug. (Chen, Propp, Lara, & Corvo, 2011).               Parental responses have a positive relationship with harmony, such as aggressive, intercourse behavior, separately, horrible concerns and sacrifices, as well as r negatively associated with social development, and social skills.(Gülay, 2011; Rohner, 1975).                Emotionally abused children, especially when trouble is initially, show difficulties with close friends.This is also true for mistreated and less supervised children, (Bolger, Patterson, & Kupersmidt, 1998).Children who get worse by their parents, who have not promoted trustworthy relationships, who have not encouraged, and who are in a steady manner generally have lack of appropriate social experiences. This further affects child’s current and later relationships, and as a result, they may have problems solving their emotions and relationships with others. (Wolfe, 1999).                In the Pakistani society, clear links to parents’ behavior with child abuse can be described in the form of mother’s priorities of sons to their daughters. Some other factors play an important part in family’s psychiatric health, with family size (i.e., large family), family structure, and birth order. Children with big family face more child abuse, in contrast children with small families (Salmon , 2003).

Parental
acceptance-rejection theory

            Parental acceptance-rejection theory (PART) reviewed by Ronald P. Rohner is related to warmth dimensions
of the parent. It is a social theory that attempts to illustrate and present
important consequences of accepting parents and child behavior, serious and
emotional development, and to follow individual personality. (Rohner, 1984). In addition, attempts
are made to explain the flexibility of parent’s reaction and some children of
emotional abuse and to accept or refuse parents, to offer important psychology,
environmental and maintenance systems. The principle is to define the
relationship between the parents’ behavior and this dimension of ideas
expressed in the society.

The dimension of the parental acceptance-rejection is
that two approaches have been observed in this regard:  subjectively as a perception of child or
parents and as observable behavior neutrally. Parents are described as
acceptance that show their love or love physically and / or verbally. They are
all behaviors that face the child’s ability to convince the child to feel love
or acceptance, such as overcome, embrace, kiss and admire. Respondents are
described in part as they dislike, dislike or hate their children. The reaction
can be shown in two principal ways: in a form of hostility and aggression on
one hand, and ignoring the exposure of parents on the other. (Rohner, 1975).

Envoy is likely to be verbally or physically
offensive to the parents, while many parents are not physically or
psychologically accessible to remote or child accessible. Both types of
reactions are likely to create a feeling of eliminating or rejecting the United
Nations. The part is expected to accept acceptance and response, especially
when they are considered individually, they affect the behavior and personality
of children and individual activities. There are seven basic examples of this:
enormity, dependence, self esteem, self sufficient, emotional instability,
emotional reactions and general world view,
(Rohner, 1984).

 

Parental
acceptance-rejection and behavior problem

               Najam and Kausar(2012) studied the parental acceptance-rejection and affiliation with social emotional adjustment of adolescents in Pakistan. He found that the warmth of parents was negative relationship with adolescents, community, negative global perspectives, negative self-esteem and depression.Researchers found important positive connections between parents’ reactions and misconduct and depression, weapons and solutions of adolescents. There was a link between parent participation and adolescents dependency, community, negative self, negative self-esteem, negative global perspective, emotional trends and depression. The results show that rejection from father, integration and emotional instability, emerging as an important prediction for adolescents in depression. Parents’ abuse and involvement emerging as an important prediction for challenges in adolescents.               Pakistan is a developing country and there is no data available on government level facts and statistics about child abuse. It has been reported that approximately 5% of the 5-year-old children face nutrition; Six percent of the children aged from six months old are unusual, bloody and low weight. Children’s death rate is dangerous (81%). Only 1/3 children are registered in the birth, so unregistered children are more sensitive to other types of misconduct and exploitation (UNICEF, 2004).               In the Pakistani context, physical offense or corporation punishment is the most common part of daily training by parents. Sometimes, it is so hard that children will get severe physical wounds. As far as psychological and emotional abuse is concerned, most of the Pakistani society is not to understand the emotional and psychological needs of their children, and they are not concerned about their self-esteem, ( Naz and Kausar, 2012).

Researchers have found that child abuse and
negligence involve behavioral problems in children and adolescence, (Ethier et al., 2004; Mills, 2004; Shaffer, Huston, & Egeland,
2008). Early 
abused children are more likely to try to promote behavioral problems in
adolescence, (Frederico et al., 2008). Researchers have often associated
abuse and neglect with internalizing behaviors (being withdrawn, sad, isolated
and depressed) and externalizing behaviors (being aggressive or hyperactive)
throughout childhood (Mills, 2004). Internal
formulation practices are generally associated with childbirth. Children with
abuse are more isolated than other children’s groups and have trouble making
friends (Hildyard & Wolf, 2002).Unusual
children can also show aggressive and warning behavior. However, behavioral
issues combined with physical and sexual abuse or domestic violence (Hildyard
& Wolf, 2002; Holt, Buckley, & Whelan, 2008). Use
of illegal sexual behavior is also associated with abuse and negligence, and to
cope with the most common sexual violence and extreme violence and sexual
violence environment (Corby, 2006; Merrick, Litrownik, Everson, &
Cox, 2008).

               In addition to pain and self-suffering, abusive and neglected children increase the risk of affecting others and developing aggressive and violent behavior in the adolescence, adolescence (Gilbert et al., 2009; Haapasalo & Pokela, 1999; Maas, Herrenkohl, & Sousa, 2008). Research shows that the physical abuse and family violence is predicted most of the youth’s (Gilbert et al., 2009; Maas et al., 2008). In a meta analysis by Gilbert and colleagues, both potential and retroactive studies indicate strong associations between child abuse and negligence and criminal behavior. A national study of the Justice of the United States has been predicted that children are likely to be more than 11 times more likely for criminal offenses in the punishment of young people (English, Widom, & Brandford, 2004). In three ways in Liu’s program in Victoria, so many eighty three percent of the children demonstrate repeated and severe violence by others (Frederico et al., 2008).

Not all children with the same experiment of abuse
are infected. Positive and negative effects on child’s weakness or elasticity
are a limit of both life experiences and family situations.This is called “the risk and safety
factors”. Flexible indicates how to cope with the child’s ability and
reach the negative experience (child welfare information gate, 2008).
When a child who is abused or neglected is a few protective factors (for
example, a positive relationship with family and friends), the risk of more
serious negative consequences increases. Dangerous factors that can contribute
to poor and neglected poor results include social-economic harm, social installation,
dangerous neighborhood boundaries, large families and children are disabled (Dubowitz & Bennett, 2007).

            Some of the
parent’s roles allow her child to get adolescent and self-sufficient and have
to control (Crosson-Tower, 1999).Issues involved in family systems may result from a
failure to provide basic members of household members like food, shelter,
protection and education. Problems dealing with the difficulties of child,
crisis situations such as illness, death, unemployment, and development of natural
disasters. Consequently, all humans need positive response as defined by the
spiritual (1975) of the main people in love, approval, heat and affection, such
as heat / affection, community / aggression, un Nect / negligence and
unacceptable responses are globally defined classes whose concept of acceptance
and response are organized around.

 

 

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