CHAPTER#1INTRODUCATIONThe idea of parentinvolvement (PI) is not a new concept; the role of parental involvement inchildren’s education has become a central issue in educational policy andresearch. While student success largely relieson factors like study habits, school attendance, test taking abilities andmore, research is showing that parental involvement also has a large impact onstudent achievement in the classroom.
In fact,according to the Academic Development Institute, parents who get concerned withtheir child’s education be likely to demonstrate good parenting involvementskills, volunteer their time in the school, communicate with faculty and takean active role in school related decision making. Thereforeparental involvement is considered a key factor in the academic achievement ofstudents.Epstein’s (1990, 1995) suggestedthat classification of parental involvement includes six categories: (1) basicparenting, (2) facilitating learning at home, (3) communicating with theschool, (4) volunteering at the school, (5) participating in school decisionmaking, and (6) collaborating with the community. Lee & Bowen (2006)elaborated that most educators recognize parental involvement in schoolactivities have positive and direct influence on student academic performance. Different Research shows that students do much betterin school when their parents are actively involved in their education. Parentaleffort is consistently associated with higher levels of achievement, and thedegree of the effect of parental effort is significant. Teachers and parentsalike are seeing success with blended learning approaches that can beintegrated both in and out of the classroom.Altschul (2012) describedparental involvement also might arbitrate the relationship betweensocioeconomic status (SES) and academic performance.
Lee & Bowen (2006)opined that Research also has demonstrated that a positive relationship existsbetween at home parental involvement and a range of school related outcomes,including academic achievement, school engagement, and socio emotionaladjustment.Nyarko (2010) explainedparental involvement includes encouragement of children to succeed, monitoringof homework, and attending field trips. Kleine, (2010) stated that Mostempirical studies on parental involvement find that parents’ engagement intheir children’s education varies by socio demographic factors (e.
g., maritalstatus and educational level) and economic circumstances.Jeynes (2007) statedparental involvement at home and in school is linked positively to a variety ofacademic outcomes. Nyarko (2010) expressed that Distinguishing betweeninvolvement at home and in school can be instructive for at least two reasons.First, some studies that differentiate between home and school based parentalinvolvements find contradictory effects. Namely, home based involvement hassignificant positive effects, while school based involvement has significantnegative effects related to academic outcomes.Kienhuis et al.
(2010)mentioned that at a minimum, parental involvement appears to differ based onthe context for example at home vs. inschool. Parents play a crucial role in both the home and school environments.
Henderson& Mapp (2002) illustrated that parental involvement is associated withchildren’s higher achievements in language and mathematics, enrolment in morechallenging programs, greater academic persistence, better behavior, bettersocial skills and adaptation to school, better attendance and lower dropoutrates. Green etal. (2007) illustrated that the parentalinvolvement are limited to school related activities, such as helping childrenwith homework, discussing children’s experiences at school, communication withthe school and participation in school based activities. Johnson & Davies (2007) advocated that there is a greater chance for academic achievement whenparents are empowered with knowledge to promote effective change in the schooland their child.Hong & Ho (2005)explained continued effort of parental involvement throughout the child’seducation can improve academic achievement. Nyarko (2011) dexplaned parentalinvolvement in which in school parental involvement includes communication withteachers about school progress and school visits. Verschueren(2011) highlighted that Academicachievement is the degree to which a learner, instructor ororganization has achieved their short or long term educational goals.
Parents play a vital rolein both the home and school environment. One of the most important aspects of this study isto find out some specific components of parental involvement to see whicheffects influenced student achievement. The parents as well as home can serve as advocates for the school. Theycan volunteer to help out with school activities or work in the classroom, orthey can take an active role in the dominance and decision making necessary forplanning, developing, and providing an education for the community’s children.
Therefore the researcherintends to conduct research on theeffects of parent’s involvement on student’s academic achievement at elementarylevel at district sheikhupura. STATMENTSOF THE PROBLEM:The Study focused on the effects of the parent’s involvement onstudent’s academic achievement at elementary level of district Sheikhupura.SIGNIFICANCEOF THE STUDY:Parents are theirchildren’s first teachers. Parent involvement in children’s education has beenproclaiming for years as being very important predictor of academicachievement. This involvement can make a variation in a child’sacademic achievement. parents who get involved with their child’s education tend to demonstrate good parenting skills, volunteertheir time in the school, communicate with faculty and take an active role inschool related decision making. · This study may be helpful for parents thatthey can better support their child, and build a healthy and productiverelationship with the school and their child’s teacher.· This study may be beneficial for teachers thatthey will gain best practices to encourage partnership with parents.
· This study may be helpful for studentsthat they will be able to collaborate with the schools and the home.· This study may be beneficial for schooladministration that they will be able to identifyspecific strategies that will impact parental involvement and enhance academicachievement.OBJECTIVEOF THE STUDY:The following was beingthe objective of this study:1. Tofind out the effects of parents involvement on the student’s academic achievementat elementary level of District Sheikhupura.RESEARCHQUESTIONS:The following was the research questions of the study:1) Does parentinvolvement have any effect on student achievement?2) Howparental involvements effect their child’s Academic achievements?3) Whatis the correlation between parent’s involvements and academic achievements?4) Whichaspect of parental involvement has the greatest impact on academic achievement?1.METHODOLOGY:1.
1 NATURE OFRESEARCH:Theresearch was descriptive in nature.1.2. RESEARCH DESIGN:Thiswas survey study.
1.3. POPULATION:Thedata was collected from all public and private school teachers (male andfemale) and all students (male and female) at District Sheikhupura. 1.4. SAMPLE:1.
4.1.SAMPLE SIZE:Totalrepresentative sample was consist of 300 Students (male and female) and 150Teachers (male and female) at elementary level from both governments andprivate schools at District Sheikhupura1.4.2.
SAMPLING TECHNIQUE:Randomsampling technique was used to select students.1.4.3.NATURE OF PARTICIPANT:Themale and female teachers and male and female students of public and privateschools at elementary level at District Sheikhupura were the participants ofthe study.2.INSTRUMENTS:Questionnairewas developed for teacher and students as a tool of research. DATACOLLECTION:Thedata of the study was collected personally.
DATAANALYSIS:Aftercollection of data, it was analyzed by using statistical techniques. Chapter# IILiteratureReviewOutline:2.1Theoratical Background1.1.1 Epstein’s model. Epstein (1995) 1.1.
2 Nyarko, K. (2011). Parental schoolinvolvement 1.1.3 Lee, J. S., & Bowen, N.
(2006). Parentinvolvement 2.1The Concept of Parents involvements and its effects2.2.1 basicparenting 2.2.2 facilitatinglearning at home 2.
2.3 communicatingwith the school2.2.4 volunteering at the school 2.
2.5 participating in school decision making2.2.6 collaborating with the community2.3 Parents involvements and its effects on academicachievement of students 2.
3.1 Basicparenting and its effects on academic achievement of students 2.3.
2 Facilitatinglearning at home and its effects on academic achievement of students. 2.3.3 Communicatingwith the school and its effect on academic achievement of students 2.3.4 Volunteering at the school and its effects on academic achievements ofstudents 2.3.5 Participating in school decision making andits effects on academic achievements 2.
3.6 Collaboratingwith the community and its effects on academic achievements CHAPTER#IIIMethod& ProcedureNatureof the research The present study was designed to examine the Effects of Parents Involvement on StudentsAcademic Achievement at Elementary Level of District Sheikhupura. Thischapter presents the methodological procedure adopted for the present research.The present research was descriptive in nature & the design was consensussurvey. Participantof the Study The study comprised all 150 teachers(male and female) and 150 students (male and female) from all public andprivate school at District Sheikhupura. As Gay (2012) indicates, if it is atall possible to obtain more participants, you should do so. Through consensussurvey entire data of all 150 teachers and 150 students of public and privateschools (75males & 75 female) of district Sheikhupura was taken in researchstudy.
All Publicschools of Lahore City Sr No. Public Teachers Total 1 Males teachers 40 2 Females Teachers 35 Total 75 Sr No. Private Teachers Total 1 Males teachers 35 2 Females teachers 40 Total 75 Sr No. Public students Total 1 Girls students 40 2 Boys students 35 Total 75 Sr No.
Private Schools Total 1 Girls students 35 2 Boys students 40 Total 75 Toolsof Research Presentresearch focused on theEffects of Parents Involvement on Students Academic Achievement at ElementaryLevel of District Sheikhupura forthat Purpose, data were collected with the help of questionnaire based on afive point Likert scale. Development of Research InstrumentAfteran extensive literature review, a questionnaire comprised of 55 items wasdeveloped by the researcher. Five items were excluded after discussion with thesupervisor. Five items were deleted based on the opinion of expertadministrators. The instrument then consisted of 45 items. The instrument wasthen tried on 3 students & 6 teachers at elementary level: five items wereexcluded due to language difficulties.
After that, the instrument was consistedof 40 items. This instrument was pilot tested on 14 students & 18 teacherspublic and private schools of district Sheikhupura. Pilot testing is used tofind out the deficiencies & omissions (Gay, 2009). The application of SPSSexcluded three items: therefor, instrument consisting of 37 items wasfinalized. Cronbach Alpha is the most popular measure to assess the reliabilityof the instrument, it was applied & the Alpha reliability of the instrumentwas determined as 0.
96. Data CollectionBeforethe admonishing the five-point scale, prior permission was obtained from higherauthority that was Director of all public and private schools at Sheikhupura.He provided permission letter for visiting the related schools. Whileadministering five-point scale to the students and teachers at secondary level,ethical principles were also kept in mind, the heads were explained the purposeof research & they were assured that the data will be kept confidential& not be used for any other purpose than this study.
They were furtherassured that their responses will not be disclosed to anyone. The instrumentwas administered to thestudents and teachers of schools under the supervisionof the researcher & data were collected.Data Analysis Aftercollecting the data, it was analyzed by using frequencies, percentage, T-test& ANOVA.