Chapter Two

The Review of The Related

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            RFID, also known as radio frequency identification is a use
of radio waves to read and
capture information stored on a tag attached to an object. RFID technology is
rapidly growing and comes with many possible applications. There are many
opportunities for RFID to be used in everyday life such as in libraries, buses,
toll roads, and commuter trains and in medical supplies. Today RFID has
surpassed the use of modern barcodes in the retail workforce and will only
continue to grow in popularity.

            The main focus of this experiment will
be on the movement of “things,” involving shipping/receiving accuracy and
efficiency using RFID readers and tags. RFID can reduce the errors in receiving
via the process known as electronic proof of delivery. With modern barcode
scanners, mistakes are made when the quantity and/or type of product are
misidentified. Along with this RFID scanning is much more reliable and can read
packages at a faster rate than barcodes. This study will test in a small scale
the fastest a RFID tag can be read by a scanner and later determine the minimum separation distance between two RFID cards that
allows both to be successfully read. It will simulate an assembly line and will
help with the understanding in how fast the belt can be moving without
interferences of packages.

History of RFID

was first developed as a new technology in the 1920s with RFID being developed
soon after (Arizona). Radio frequency identification was first used in 1930
during World War ? (CNRFID). It
was used in the airplane’s radar signal to read an identification number of
another vehicle in order to identify whether they were allies or enemies. In
the late 1960s Checkpoint and Sensormatic were founded. Both of these companies
developed Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) systems that used passive 1-bit
RFID tags. EAS is arguably the first and most widespread commercial use of RFID
and is still widely used today (Juho Partanen, 2015). In the 80s technological developments lead to the
creation of passive tags, meaning we no longer needed the energy to be embedded
into the tag. Therefore the price of the tag and its maintenance could be drastically reduced
(CNRFID). In the early 1990s IBM worked on RFID UHF technology, however,
the technology never made it commercial. In late 1990s AutoID Center at MIT was
established. Their grand idea was to store most of the relevant information in
a database, not in the tag itself. This greatly simplified the use case of tag
to focus on identification alone. All these steps together allowed for increased
compatibility, performance and reliability of UHF RFID systems. Emerging global
standards in 2004, encouraged the first major organizations, such as Walmart,
Tesco and the US Department of Defense, to issue mandates demanding their
suppliers to become RFID compliant on all their shipments. However immaturity
of the RFID value chain in the late 2000s, unhealthy venture capital financing
and patent disputes lead to a few years of hesitation and delays in the large
scale adoption of RFID. Fortunately in the 2010s major roll-outs by Macy’s,
Hudson’s Bay Company, Marco Polo and a many more have turned this technology
into a commodity especially in retail and industrial applications.

RFID vs Bar

labels have been standard in retail for over 30 years, however now other
technologies such as radio frequency identification has greatly overtaken bar
scanners as the new king of retail. While both RFID and barcodes are suitable
for different applications; but RFID shows clear advantages over
barcodes. Advantages of RFID is that RFID tags can be read at a faster rate
than barcodes, RFID tags can work within much greater distances
than barcodes, once they are set up it can be run with minimal human
participation, RFID tags don’t need to be positioned in a line of sight
with the scanner, and they are more reusable (Adaptalift, 2012). However
there are several disadvantages that come along with using RFID tags regarding materials, reliability, cost, and
implementation. RFID involves assembling and inserting a
computerized chip; which is more expensive, RFID readers struggle picking up
information when passing through metal or liquid, Reader collision can
occur where two signals from different readers overlap and the tag is unable to
respond to both, Tag collision can occur when numerous tags in the same
area respond at the same time, and RFID still has two separate chips
(read only and readable/writable), which cannot be read by the same machine
(Adaptalift, 2012).


            Radio frequency identification is rapidly growing and has many possible
applications in retail and in everyday life. RFID is used in amusement parks, libraries,
buses, toll roads, and commuter trains and in medical supplies and many more. RFID
has shown clear advantage over barcodes being more reliable and much more efficient
at scanning. RFID can work at much larger distances than barcodes, can scan
more at one time, and are much faster when scanning. Overall RFID has surpassed
the use of modern barcodes in retail and will only continue to become cheaper
and more reliable in the years to come.

Definitions of Terms

Barcode – a
machine-readable code in the form of numbers and a pattern of parallel lines of
varying widths, printed on and identifying a product.

Binary measurement – It
admits only one answer among two possible: for or against. In this experiment
the two outcomes are yes or no for if the card was read or not.

Computer Chip – A small piece of semiconducting material on which an integrated circuit
is embedded.

 EAS – (Electronic Article Surveillance) A
security system for preventing theft in retail stores that uses disposable
label tags or reusable hard tags attached to the merchandise

RFID – (Radio Frequency Identification) The use of radio waves to read and
capture information stored on a tag attached to an object.

RFID tag – an ID
system that uses small radio frequency identification devices for
identification and tracking purposes.

Simple majority – A
majority in which the highest number of votes cast for any one candidate,
issue, or item exceeds the second-highest number, while not constituting
an absolute majority.

UHF – (Ultra High Frequency)  Radio frequencies in the range between
300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz)

Citations and References

N. C., Shrestha, S., & Bibile, M. (2017, January 01). Chipless RFID.
Retrieved October 16, 2017, from


& Materials Handling Blog. (n.d.). Retrieved January 07, 2018, from


K. (2016, August 09). What’s the difference between RFID & barcode
technologies? Retrieved January 07, 2018, from


J. (2017, July 24). RFID vs. Barcodes: What are the advantages of RFID over
Barcodes? | RFIDinsider. Retrieved January 07, 2018, from


J. (2015, February). History of RFID. Retrieved January 6, 2018, from


S., Calcaterra, G., Gray, M., Nair, R., & Robertson, E. (n.d.). RFID
Tagging: Final Report. Retrieved January 5, 2018, from


B. (2017, January 01). RFID in transportation and logistics. Retrieved October
16, 2017, from        


RFID Card Reader, USBTechnical
datasheet for RFID Card Reader, USB (#28340). (2016, May 24). Retreived
October 16, 2017, from


Sekerak, M. (1989, June 8).
Benefitting from radio-frequency systems. Machine Design, 61(11),
127+. Retrieved from
Benefits of
implementing RFID in Supply Chain Management. (n.d.). Retrieved October
16, 2017, from


Metal-friendly RFID. (2012,
September). R & D, 54(5), 26. Retrieved from


Turri, A. M.,
Smith, R. J., & Kopp, S. W. (2017). Privacy and RFID technology: a
review of regulatory efforts. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 51(2),
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