Chapter1INTRODUCTION1.1Introduction           Tourism Industry is one of the fastest developing sectorsfor the economy worldwide other than technology development (Garg, 2011). Tourists are people who travel to and stay in placesoutside their usual environment for more than twenty-four hours and not morethan one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not relatedto the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited (UnitedNations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), 2017).

Tourism industry is a major global industry which links tourists to diversedestinations that they choose to travel. Theadvancements in today’s technology creates more opportunities fortourism industry in many developing countries. The widespread use of internetfor tourists to get knowledge about the vacation destination and make bookingsfor their vacation as tourist’s promotional tourism marketing tool has greatlyincreased the development of tourism industry (Spilsbury, R, 2010). Accordingto the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), the average annualgrowth for international tourist arrivals was 4 percent for the world, while forSouth-East Asia was 5 percent. As the world tourism went global, the effect oftourism to total contribution to GDP has increased significantly from 1995 to2016. The impact of tourism on economic and socio development in South-EastAsia has a huge contribution in the GDP, employment, visitor exports andinvestment (World Travel & Tourism Council, 2017). Gunduz and Hatemi (2005)stated that the tourism industry is a world source of invigorating economicgrowth, in contain of exports, taxes, income, and employment (Su, Y. & H.

Lin., 2014). Moreover, tourism is also high in visibility and ubiquity, tourismrelated crimes are usually highly published in the publicity. This cause thetourists doubt to visit destinations which had high crime rates.          Themajority of authors argued that the absence of crime is important for tourismsector in any country (Mthembu, N., 2009). Crime is defined as an action orbehavior that qualifies as crime by the order of law (Shafer, S., 1967).

Acrime may occur in different places and different situations, for example,crimes committed by local residents against tourists, crimes committed bytourists against local residents, crimes committed by tourists against othertourists and planned crimes against tourism entities (Prashyanusorn, V., S.Kaviya, and P. P. Yupapin, 2010). Crime can be divided into two categories, violentcrime and property crime. Within each category, many more specific crimesexist.

Violent crime, a crime where anoffender physically hurts or threatens to hurt a victim. It might be or mightnot be committed with weapons. Violent crimes includes homicide,aggravated and simple assault, rape and sexual assault, and robbery. Propertycrime is a theft or destruction of someoneelse’s property. It does not involve force or threat of force against avictim. Property crime includes burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft,robbery, vandalism and arson (Wikipedia, 2017).

Furthermore,crime is one of many types of risk that mostly affect the tourists.         Risk can be stated as a major source of concern for internationaltravelers. The need for security is a fundamental feature of a person andsafety concerns can prevent travel to certain places (Kozak, et al., 2007).

Risk perception is defined as a cognitive assessment that affects touristbehavior. In other words, the risk perception of a tourist is significantlyaffected by events when buying or consuming tourism product, or perceptionsabout a destination. In this sense, it is assumed that tourist are rational,risk-averse consumers who prefer to safe destinations (Chahal, Devi, 2015).Tourists often prefer travelling to destinations with low cost and low securityrisk. It is possible for tourists to create a negative impression towards adestination when they feel unsafe or threatened.

Therefore, tourists preferdestinations that are perceived as safer instead of the ones that are perceivedas risky or insecure (Seabra, et al., 2013). 1.2 Tourism in Malaysia           Malaysia is adeveloping country in South-East Asia. It is like 2 countriesin 1, separated in half by the South China Sea, Peninsular Malaysia and EastMalaysia (Malaysian Borneo) situated in Southeast Asia. Peninsular Malaysiaflaunts bustling cities, colonial buildings, misty tea plantation, and chillout islands, while Malaysian Borneo is a tropical paradise with endless white sandy beaches, the oldest and mostbio-diverse rainforest, and an abundance of natural wonders. Malaysia is one ofthe most unique travel destination with splendor of nature.

In addition,Malaysia is a country that has Asia’s threemajor races such as Malay, Chinese and Indian. Besides that, there are variousother ethnic groups, which is Dayak, Iban, Biyaduhs, Kadazan, Bajau,Murut and many more. Multiculturalism has notonly made Malaysia a unique country but it also has made Malaysia famous forits exciting diversity of cultures, festivals, traditions, food and customs.          Moreover, Mohd.Ayob & Masron (2014) clarified that tourism sector has become as one of the mainsource to Malaysia’s incomes. The Prime Minister ofMalaysia, Datuk Seri Najib Abdul Razak also claimed that tourism industrystands at the sixth largest contributor, contributing a total of RM 161billion (14.9%) for the year 2014 GDP in Malaysia,whereby it is important to sustain the development on the economy andsociety.

Nevertheless, in the past few years the safety concerns among touristshave raised. The Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC US State Department)(2015) reported that the overall crime rate for Malaysia is pretty high. Italso stated that there was an increase in crime in Malaysia in 2014, whichincluded several assaults and robberies, several times involving weapons. Themost common crimes committed against foreigners in Malaysia are pursesnatching, petty theft, pickpocketing, residential burglaries, credit cardfraud and automobile theft. Residential burglaries are becoming a more commoncrime in Malaysia.

Australia citizen was killed in a home burglary accident in2013. On 15 November 2013, a Taiwanese man was shot dead and his wife waskidnapped by a group of unidentified gunmen, after being attacked in the resortof Pom Pom Island off Semporna, east coast of Sabah. Later, on 20 December2013, the Taiwanese lady was rescued by Philippines security forces (The STAR,2013). Another incident occurred again on 2 April 2014, in Semporna, Sabah, aChinese tourist and a Filipino hotel employee from Singamata Reef Resort werekidnapped. This incident led to a dramatic decline of Chinese tourist arrivalsto Sabah, all flights from China to Kota Kinabalu, the state capital were cancelled(The STAR, 2014).

The twin tragedies of MalaysiaAirlines (MAS) flights MH370 and MH17 has make 2014 a tragic year for Malaysia.MH370 is still unaccounted since its mysterious disappearance on a trip fromKuala Lumpur to Beijing on March 8. Just four months later, another MAS flightMH17, was shot down in eastern Ukraine on July 17. These incidentsbrings threat to the tourism destination image. 1.3 Research Problem           Tourism as a product is intangible,inseparable, heterogeneous, and perishable in nature which makes risk part ofthe package (Mitchell and Greatorex, 1993; Williams & Baláž, 2013),although at times, risk contributes to the excitement and positive experienceof travel (Cater, 2006; Dickson and Dolnicar, 2004; Quintal et al., 2010). Manyauthors discussed about risk and tourism, especially those focused to safetyand security risks, such as terrorism and crime.

Travel-related risk researchtrend emerged in the 1990’s (Sönmez et al, 1999). A number of common crimeincidents in Malaysia recent years have raised the safety and security concernsamong tourists, including kidnapping in east coast of Sabah and phone snatchingin Kuala Lumpur incidents.              A great number of prior studies haveinvestigated travel-related risk perception on a large sample which led topromising statistical significance, but much of the data was collected fromresidents, students, and the general public rather than actual tourists, andwere not destination nor event specific (Lepp & Gibson, 2003; Simpson andSiguaw, 2008; Williams and Baláž, 2013). Roehl & Fesenmaier (1992), two ofthe pioneer authors in this field, have cautioned that risk perception issituation-specific, hence it necessitates a destination-based study to aptly examinerisk perception and its antecedents in the context of interest. This studyaimed to investigate tourists’ risk perception towards crime (event-specific)on Malaysia (destination-specific) from actual tourists at internationalairports, popular tourist places, hotels and shopping mall. 1.

4 Research QuestionsThereare some specific questions included in this study. The specific questions ofthis study are as follow:       i.           How tourists perceive risk on crime in Malaysia?      ii.

           How does travel experience, priorexperience with risk, travel motivation, novelty preference, and demographicfactors affect tourists risk perception? 1.5 Research Objectives 1.5.1 General Objective Thegeneral objective of this study is to understand tourist’s risk perceptiontowards crime in Malaysia.

    1.5.2 Specific ObjectivesThereare some specific objectives included in this study. The specific objectives ofthis study are as follow:        i.           To examine how travel experience affectsrisk perception of tourist towards crime.     ii.           To investigate how prior experience withrisk affects risk perception of tourist towards crime.

   iii.           To study how travel motivation affectsrisk perception of tourist towards crime.   iv.           To inspect how novelty preferenceaffects risk perception of tourist towards crime.     v.           To examine how demographic factorsaffects risk perception of tourist towards crime.

 1.6 Significance ofStudy          From a CNN global study in 2013, 67%of respondents are more worried about the safety and security of a destinationrather than its cost and reputation. When the tourists feel unsafe or threatened, they can create a negativeimpression of the certain holiday destination. Tourists may become scared andhesitates to travel to certain places and destinations due to being a high-riskzone.

Bad impression can develop bad reputation and causes decline in tourismindustry. The more the touristsfeel unsecured, the less the intention they have to visit any particulardestinations. Therefore, thesafety of tourist’s is important because when they invest their money inMalaysia, the currency rate increases and benefits the Malaysia’s economy           The main interest of this study is tosee tourists feel safe and secure during their vacation in Malaysia and toencourage and attract more tourists to visit Malaysia because it will benefitsthe Malaysia’s economy. Furthermore, this research expected to contributeopportune perspectives to the tourism industry in Malaysia and to providetheoretical implications to other destinations with similar risk background.

 Chapter 2LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 IntroductionLiterature review is a systematic process of examining the ideas,concepts, theories, practices, trends and issues related to research activity.It helps to gain insights that useful for formulating research design withappropriate hypotheses and instruments for data collection.

Accordingly, aplenty of research has been carried out on the selected research topic. Forthis purpose, various national and international journals, periodicals,reports, books, academic theses, newspapers, opinion and popular writingsreviewed. This review has broadly covered existing literature on crime intourism, risk perception in tourism, and tourist risk perception towards crime.Major research papers were reviewed for better understanding and to get clarityof the concepts and the research problem. The review of literature facilitatedthe researcher to identify research gaps in the existing knowledge base.        2.2 Definitionsof CrimeTable2.

1: Definitions of Crime   Author and Year   Definitions Tappan (1947) “An international act in violation of the criminal law (statutory and case law), committed without defense or excuse, and penalized by the state as a felony or misdemeanor” Tenibiaje (2010) “An act that violates the law of the society or serious offence against the law of the society for which there is a severe punishment by law.” Usman et al. (2012)  “An act or omission forbidden by law on pain of punishment or else is a violation of law.” Habibullah, Baharom, and Tan (2013) “Violation of ‘property rights’ where the focus was prioritized on crime against property.”   2.3 The Cases of Crime in Malaysia onTourists           There are several crimeincidents which is kidnapping cases which occurred in Sabah for the past fewyears. Early on 15 November 2013, a Taiwanese man was shot dead and his wife waskidnapped by a group of unidentified gunmen after the couple being attacked inthe resort of Pom Pom Island off Semporna, east coast of Sabah.

The Taiwanese’swife was rescued by Philippines security forces later on 20 December 2013 (TheStar, 2014). Tourist being kidnaped incident happened again on 2 April 2014,which a Chinese tourist and a Filipino hotel employee from Singamata ReefResort in Semporna, Sabah, were kidnapped. This incident caused a dramaticdecline of Chinese tourist arrivals from China to Sabah (The Star, 2014). Touristkidnapping incidents in Sabah, adversely affected Malaysia’s tourism sector. Lee,C.

F., (2014), further explained that the Chinese-tourist kidnapping incidentsresulted flights from China to Kota Kinabalu, the state capital were beencancelled. As of April, 76 flights from China to Kota Kinabalu were cancelled.Among the 76 cancelled flights, 10 were Malaysia Airlines flights fromShanghai, 22 were China Southern Airlines flights from Shenzhen and 44 were SpringAirlines flights from Shanghai. Moreover, twintragedies of Malaysia Airlines (MAS) flights MH370 and MH17 has make 2014 atragic year for Malaysia.

MH370 is still unaccounted since its mysteriousdisappearance on a trip from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing on March 8. Just fourmonths later, another MAS flight MH17, was shot down in eastern Ukraine on July17.This incidents prompted many tourists from China to avoid the SoutheastAsian country, causing business operators to suffer conservatively RM10 millionloss and the amount reaches RM100 million for the whole tourism market (KhmerTimes, 2014).

Malaysian government had taken several measures to reducethe loss due to the tragic incidents occurred in 2014. According to the news reportedin The Star, 2014, Tourism and Culture Minister conducted tourism campaigns in othercountries, such as  Thailand, Singapore,Indonesia, Brunei, the Philippines, India, Bangladesh, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Australiaand New Zealand. Malaysia established a crisis management committee specificallyto tackle China’s tourism sector in order to rebuild the China tourist’sconfidence of to visit Malaysia.            Furthermore,a tourist from China wrote to reader’s column inSin Chew Daily about them being victim of theft during their visit to Malacca. Athief on motorcycle has snatched a camera from one of their members in the group.They were extremely shocked that such incident took place under broad daylight(Malaysian Chinese news, 2014).

  Recentlyin one of the hotel in Kuala Lumpur, two tourists become victims of a snatchtheft at the entrance of the hotel, where a man on motorcycle rides into viewand quickly snatches one of the tourist’s phone and rides off quickly. (TheSTAR, 2017). This incidents has eroded internationaltourist’s confidence on safety during their visit to Malaysia.


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