Chapter3 : Research Methodology 3.0Introduction : Research method is a process that considered veryimportant to find the purpose of the subject. It helps to gather information,findings and documents that are useful for the study.

Research is best for atopic or subject that is already known, but it goes deeper about the subject.It also served as a guide to solve and answers the research objectives. Theresearch methodology is preferred to be structure in order to facilitate the work.

The research process is presented as follows: 3.1Identification of the problemThe subject of dissertation aimed to learn the impactof Facebook on education in the capital of Madagascar, which is Antananarivo.It analyzes the exam results as well as the success rate of baccalaureate. Theuse social media, particularly Facebook become prominent to young people. Therefore,the effects of using social networking provokes changes that can be significantto student hence the reason for the drop-in baccalaureate success rate. Understandingwhy young people in the capital are influenced by Facebook is important.

And also,how they use this kind of social media as well as their center of interest.3.2Research ObjectivesBrainstorming helps to identify the researchobjectives and to develop the issues of topic. To find a good technical way toprocess the research, formulating questions are crucial for the researchobjectives. The objectives must focus on the target audience, and some otherpatterns which are the key words of the study.1)     Tostate baccalaureate exam results at secondary level over the last five years2)     Torepresent the side effects on the education of using a lot social media atsecondary school.3)     Toanalyse the importance of using Facebook in a good way for students.4)     Toevaluate and analyze the use of social media and some theories which concernssocial media.

5)     Toexplore that studying media literacy makes students aware of what and how theyuse Facebook ethically and consciously in order not to affect their education.6)     Todemonstrate how Social Media influences the new generation nowadays. 3.3Literature ReviewLiterature Review is one step in which presents allabout the research and documents gathered about the subject.

The goal is to getmore understanding of the problem in critical way. Indeed, it containsevaluation of the research and all about the literature on the topic. Theliterature review is the theoretical study of the topic likewise the academicliterature like book reviews, academic documents concerning the subject of theresearch.3.4Research DesignBy definition, research design is described as thedesign that portrays the way that data is collected and analysed, according toParahoo (1997). It is represented as a framework guiding to find analysis onthe subject.

The research design will focus on the research methods applied inthe data collection.3.4.1Quantitative and Qualitative Research methodsThese two methods are an effective path to contributein understanding the problems caused by Facebook on education at secondarylevel. Both of them are used in research methods for having efficient results.Quantitative research methods are defined as a statistical, or mathematicaltechniques representing the study of the phenomena (after the Sage encyclopediaof Research methods, Lisa M. 2008), therefore, the interpretation of thephenomena is presented in numbers.

It can also be demonstrated in statistics.While, Qualitative research methods collect in-depth in finding thecomprehension of human opinion and comportment. It is a subjective way tooutline the problems by questioning people.

Thus, it contains various cases dependingon the point of view of each person. It does not provide neither numerical datanor statistics tests. Quantitative and qualitative methods are chosen and bothnecessary to conduct research methods.

Below, there is a given comparison ofquantitative and qualitative research methods from Patton (1990) and Chisnall(2001) point of view. Table3.1 Comparison of quantitative and qualitative methods Quantitative methods Qualitative methods Objective Subjective Deductive Inductive Decisive Evocative Random, probabilistic simple Give purpose, understanding Number-based Text Statistics No statistics, case studies Specific question Opened question How many? How often? What? Why?   3.4.2Survey Research MethodSurvey Research Method is one way to manage datacollection from people. It can be presented as an interview to general public,including discussion that explains likely their perspective idea of the topicgiven. It aims to collet information as much as possible to fulfill researchmethod.

The survey method on this subject of dissertation directs to understandhow young people think about the effects of Facebook on exam results. Surveyhelps to seeing the real facts happening in society. The public that are goingto answer the several questions are going to provide responses which conduct usto finding and analysis. Hence, survey requires interaction with the public andmore times as a given questionnaire must be managed during the interview.

The content of questionnaire is formed by somequestions that should be answered in two ways: Firstly, open-ended questionswhere the participants answer with its own response, based on their opinion ofthe subject. Secondly, they are also disposed to have multiple choice wherethey can give 1 or more answers, this consists of analysing the statistic studyof the phenomena.3.4.

3Participant observationPeople who participated on the survey are young peopleas the study concerns about teenagers. Participants include Facebook users,particularly Malagasy people because the subject deals with Madagascar citizen.The participant observation aims to understand the diversity of people whoaccepts to be engaged to answers questions. As each individual can have hisrespective values, believes, and way of thinking, stated Ashley Crossman on thesite ThoughtCo.

3.5Sampling DesignAccording to Stat Trek dictionary, sampling design isthe process in which some elements of populations are included in sample.3.6Data CollectionData collection refers to collecting all informationavailable from many sources to deal with the purpose of the topic, to find andevaluate some hypothesis. In fact, the data is classified as primary and secondary.

Primary data is gathered by the researcher after theresults of questionnaires that he conducted, after his technical observationsof facts, due to some interviews and from archives which contains data. While,Secondary data refers to primary data collected and reported in journals,books, magazines, blogs.3.7Data AnalysisWhile interpreting the accumulated data, thequalitative and quantitative research methods were used in order to manage theeffectiveness of the study and to relate each finding from the relevantsources. The analysis of findings was shown in Excel Spreadsheet to classify thecharacters and the variables.3.8Preparation of final reportAfter the long process of research methodology, thereport was written.

Harvard referencing was used as required, and data has beeninterpreted in order to release a great conclusion of the research objectives. 3.9Limitation of surveySome people did not accept to participate in answeringthe question, this has limited the number of the person who has answered thequestions. They declared not having time to respond it.

Some other participantsdid not finish the questionnaire because there were a lot of questions to beasks.In addition,  3.10Conclusion 

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