Arduino is an open-source based on a hardware and software. It has
been used in thousands of educational and professional projects. It’s a
microcontroller based on the Atmel ATmega328 which can operate at 5V. The microcontroller
can be programmed easily by connecting it to a computer via USB cable and using
Arduino software (IDE) which is built based on Java. This board offers digital
and analog inputs and outputs as well as PWM output.
(PWM) is a technique used to control the amplitude of digital signal in order
to control AC/DC motors or even used in communication field. It controls the
power of the voltage components by cycling the on and off phases of a signal
quickly and thus varying the value of duty cycle. As a motor this input will be
a constant voltage since the square waves are varying quickly. PWM contribute
in minimizing the loss in power in the circuit. A square waveform of the PWM
duty cycle can be shown in figure 4.2.
Figure 4.2: PWM
For better comprehension of PWM
these diagrammatic portrayals can be utilized. These figures speak to the
waveforms gotten as yield at various voltage requirements.
Figure 4.3: Servo motor PWM timing diagram
Servo Motor (MG 90S) Specifications
Its position is defined by the width of duty cycle of the PWM
pulses arriving from Arduino. Shown in Figure 4.4.
This will redirect the mechanical structure towards the target.
Figure 4.4: PWM Period in Servo Motor
Table 4.1: Servo motor
degree- 0.08s/60 degree
4.8 V – 6.0 V
4.5: Servo motor
A4Tech webcam has been chosen because
it has ability to recording at 30 fps for high resolutions and 60 fps for low
resolution. It is a 1920×1080p full HD camera and the image resolution is up to
Figure 4.6: A4TECH PK900H webcam