CHAPTER 2: REVIEWRELATED LITERATURE Proven solid waste managementpractices and its effect on human health and environment.The organization of solid waste undergoes to be themain challengeparticularly in the most healthcare amenities of the developing world. Poorconduct and unfortunatedisposaltechniquesimplemented during supervision anddisposal of CSW is increasing important health hazards and environmentalpollution due to the contagious nature of the waste. This article summary a literaturereview into remaining CSW administrationrehearses in the healthcare centers. Severalresearches have been accompanied on the management of CSW (2016). Although, importantstages have been taken on substances related to safe control and disposal ofthe waste, but inappropriate management practice is manifest from the point ofinitial collection to the final disposal. In most cases, the main reasons of mismanagementof CSW are the lack of legislation, lack of specialized clinical staffs, lackof awareness and effective control. Furthermore, most of the healthcare centersof the developing world have handled financial complications and thereforelooking for cost effective disposal ways and means of clinical waste.

Thispaper emphasizes to remain the recycle-reuse program of CSW materials after sterilizationby consuming supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) sterilization machineryat the fact of initial gathering. Importance is on the significance toinactivate thetransferrable micro-organisms in CSW. Therefore, waste would not stanceany danger to healthcare personnel. The recycling-reuse platform would becarried out effectively with the non-specialized clinical staffs. Consequently,the implementation of SF-CO2 sterilization technology in management of clinicalsolid waste can easepublicity to contagious waste, decrease labor, lower costs,and produce better agreement with supervisory.   Municipal solid waste management status,problems and challenges.

This paper presents an examination of MSW generation and composition providingan overview of the current state of MSW management, an analysis of existingproblems in MSW collection, separation, recycling and disposal, and somesuggestions for improving MSW systems in the future.                    Solid waste managementpractices and analysis of reclamation and recycling actions             This paper offers a broad summary of solid waste data and managementpractices employed in Turkey during the last decade. Municipalsolid waste statistics and management practices including waste recovery andrecycling initiatives have been evaluated. Detailed data on solid wastemanagement practices including collection, recovery and disposal, together withthe results of cost analyses, have been presented. Based on these evaluationsbasic cost estimations on collection and sorting of recyclable solid waste inTurkey have been provided. The results indicate that the household solid wastegeneration in Turkey, per capita, is around 0.6 kg/year, whereas municipalsolid waste generation is close to 1 kg/year.

The major constituents ofmunicipal solid waste are organic in nature and approximately 1/4 of municipalsolid waste is recyclable. Separate collection programs for recyclablehousehold waste by more than 60 municipalities, continuing in excess of 3years, demonstrate solid evidence for public acceptance and continuing supportfrom the citizens. Opinion polls indicate that more than 80% of the populationin the project regions is ready and willing to participate in separatecollection programs.

The analysis of output data of the Material RecoveryFacilities shows that, although paper, including cardboard, is the mainconstituent, the composition of recyclable waste varies strongly by the sourceor the type of collection point.     Modeling Animal Waste Management Practices: Impact on Bacterial Level inRunoff of from Agricultural Lands            Runoff from agricultural lands carrying microorganisms fromlivestock manure can contaminate the food and water supplies of both animalsand humans. Planning and design of animal waste management practices, thus,becomes more important as livestock populations become more concentrated. Acomputer model is proposed to predict the effects of animal waste managementpractices on the bacteria concentration of runoff from agricultural lands. Themodel uses Monte Carlo simulation to combine the deterministic relationshipswith statistical knowledge concerning rainfall and temperature variation. Themodel outputs maximum and minimum bacteria concentrations in runoff resultingfrom a storm assumed to occur immediately after manure is applied to the land.

The model can simulate the effects of waste storage, filter strips, andincorporation of manure into the soil. Data and information collected from theOwl Run watershed in Fauquier County, Virginia is used to demonstrate themodel’s applicability and potential. Long-term manure storage was found to bethe most appropriate practice for reducing bacteria concentrations for thestudy site. Incorporation of manure was as effective as long-term storage, butis costlier. Buffer strips alone were not sufficient for reducing bacteriaconcentrations to meet the water quality goal. Since animal waste managementpractices have only recently been implemented on the watershed, no field datais yet available to validate the model’s predictions.

     Effects of Environmental ManagementSystem on Environmental Management Practices and Operations            To date, it is unclear as to how EnvironmentalManagement Systems (EMS) are implemented and what effects these systems have onother environmental and operational practices. This study reports empiricalinsights to EMS practices based on the largest EMS survey of manufacturingfirms in the United States. The objective of the study is to test for arelationship between environmental management systems and perceived operationsperformance while considering direct and indirect effects of variousenvironmental practices. The results of this study are supported by severalfield studies and provide a new source of information regarding EMS theorydevelopment. The results also indicate a positive relationship between an EMS,the environmental practices a firm engages, and operations performancemeasures.        Management practices for environmental innovationand performance            This paper explores whether there arediscernible differences in the environmental innovation and performance of USchemical firms that can be explained by differences in the management practicesand characteristics of the firms.

Using data from a national survey, firmvisits, and phone interviews, this research assesses the pervasiveness of theadoption of environmental management practices. It also assesses whether theadoption of these practices is related to leadership in environmentalinnovation and performance. This paper shows high levels of adoption of severalpractices for improving environmental innovation and performance. Firms areusing practices such as total quality management, certification of suppliers,R&D, and the involvement of employees in innovation and training tointegrate environmental management with their production systems. In addition,firms with the highest adoption levels of environmental practices havesubstituted cleaner materials and changed their production processes forcleaner production, and they are leaders in reducing their generation ofchemical waste.      Resource use and wastemanagement in Vietnam hotel industry            Thehotel industry of Vietnam is expanding rapidly with increasing internationalarrivals and domestic tourists. At the same time, mounting costs of resourcesand impacts of waste could affect the income, environmental performance andpublic image of the hotel sector.

The hotel industry’s resource management(energy and water) would contribute to the long-term sustainability of thetourism sector. This paper reports the results of a study conducted to assessthe resource use and management in the hotel industry in Vietnam. This wasobtained by carrying out a survey in 50 hotels on energy and water consumption,and waste generation. The energy and water use, as well as the waste generatedin the various hotel categories have been estimated and compared with those inother countries. The current practices in the hotels to address these issuesare highlighted, and benchmarks for efficient use of resources in Vietnamesehotels are presented.          Household recyclingknowledge, attitudes and practices towards solid waste management            Aquestionnaire survey consisting of 2400 householders was performed on Abadanresidents to evaluate their knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) towardssolid waste (SW) reduction, source separation and recycling, collection andwillingness to pay (WTP) for SW services.

The study has also covered therelationship between demographic variables and KAP towards SW management. Thedata analyzed suggests that the studied community had a very positive attitudeto take part in SW source separation and recycling plans. However, therespondents not only showed low intimate knowledge of different steps of SWmanagement, but were also weak to take practices about these steps. The KAP ofSW source separation and recycling was influenced by demographic factors ofage, education level, gender and occupation.

It was further found thateducation level and occupation were two significant factors affecting residents’WTP (?2 = 24.083, p-value <0.0001).

Inconclusion our study found that providing public with MSW infrastructures andimproving citizens’ awareness about SW source separation and recycling topromote SW recycling programs hold great promise for developing effectivepublic campaigns and behavior-changing interventions. This has importantimplications in that the usual KAP of public proved inadequate in the case ofSW source separation and recycling. The implementation of needs-based trainingprograms considering females as one of the main audience groups anddetermination of municipality needs are thereby highly advocated.

     Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean            Plastic debris in the marine environment is widelydocumented, but the quantity of plastic entering the ocean from waste generatedon land is unknown. By linking worldwide data on solid waste, populationdensity, and economic status, we estimated the mass of land-based plastic wasteentering the ocean. We calculate that 275 million metric tons (MT) of plasticwaste was generated in 192 coastal countries in 2010, with 4.8 to 12.7 millionMT entering the ocean. Population size and the quality of waste managementsystems largely determine which countries contribute the greatest mass of uncapturedwaste available to become plastic marine debris.

Without waste managementinfrastructure improvements, the cumulative quantity of plastic waste availableto enter the ocean from land is predicted to increase by an order of magnitudeby 2025.     

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