Chapter 1 INTRODUCTIONBackground of the StudyPhilippines, Djibouti and Angola and other countries in Asia are the remaining countries who remain with a 10-year pre-university program. The Philippine Educational System is one of the most abrupt formal educations in the world covering a span of 14 years. This system involves 6-year primary education, 4 years for secondary education and another 4 years for tertiary education. Fortunately, the government offers free and compulsory education for the first 6-year class of a pupil.

For secondary education, mandated order for curriculum is extended. As for the tertiary education, it does not negotiates compulsory education, but offers scholarship programs.  For this reason, the country formulates an idea that adapts the educational system of the majority.In order to maneuver this evident problem on education, the Department of Education has started to implement the new K-12 Curriculum, which serves as the major redeem in the existing curriculum. This reform includes boosting of basic education for mastery and extending of basic education curriculum to incorporate 12 years. By prolonging the basic education, that is, adding kindergarten and two years in high school. The recent program ensures that graduates earn the necessary skills and reach the legal age for employment to qualify entrance into the world of work, if they desire or need to do so.

On the other hand, graduates who opt to go to tertiary education are deemed better prepared for college study (Seameo Innotech, 2012). A major change brought about by K-12 curriculum is the addition of two years in secondary education, known as Senior High School (SHS). The old 4-year secondary curriculum will be now renamed as Junior High School (JHS) which starts from Grades 7 to Grade 10, and Senior High School will follow through from Grades 11 to 12.

 The newly implemented curriculum offers the highlights on opportunity specialization in Academic, Technical-Vocational-Livelihood, Sports and Arts fields. The chosen tracks depend on the students’ preference, interest and capacities. Also, it will determine the subjects to be taken by the student during his/her Senior High School. The tracks mentioned are as follows: Academic Track a. Accountancy, Business and Management (ABM) b.

General Academic Strand (GAS)c. Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS) d. Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM)2. Technical-vocational Track      a. Agriculture-Fisheries       b. Home Economics       c. Industrial Arts       d.

Information and Communications Technology (ICT) 3. Sports Track4. Arts and Design TrackStatement of the Problem This study aims to determine the different factors that affect the Senior High School strand preference of selected 10 students; specifically, it aims to answer the following questions:Leading factors that affects the students’ preference in choosing Senior High School strand in terms of:Personality Family/RelativesInterestsJob OpportunitiesHow do these factors do affect the student’s decision making in choosing Senior High School strand?Theoretical and Conceptual Framework The study is anchored on the theory of Donald Super which focuses on the development of life roles over the life span with emphasis on inter-role congruence. His vocational concept as a part of self-concept is formed; it is the driving force that establishes a career pattern one will follow through life (Super, 1990).

Vocational developmental tasks are derived from vocational stages which provides framework for vocational behavior and attitudes. The vocational developmental stages are as follows: 1. Growth (birth-age 14 or 15), characterized by development of capacity, attitudes, interests, and needs associated with self-concepts; 2. Explanatory (ages 15-24), characterized by a tentative phase in which choices are. 3.

Establishment (ages 25-44), characterized by trial and stabilization through work experiences; 4. Maintenance (ages 45-64), characterized by a continual adjustment process to improve working position and situation; and 5. Decline (ages 65+), characterized by preretirement considerations, reduced work output, and eventual retirement.

 The crystallization task (ages 14-18) is forming a preferred career plan and considering how it might be implemented. Pertinent information is studied with the goal of becoming more aware of the preferred choice and the wisdom of preference. The specification task (ages 18-21) follows in which the individual feels the need to specify the career plan through more specific resources and explicit awareness of cogent variables of the preferred choice. The implementation task (ages 21-24) is accomplished by the completion of training and entry into the career and develops a feeling of security in career position. The stabilization (ages 24-35) is reached when the individual is firmly established in a career and develops a feeling of security in career position. Finally, the consolidation task (35+) follows with advancement and seniority in a career.

Super also identified six dimensions that were thought to be relevant and appropriate for adolescents:Orientation to Vocational Choice (an attitudinal dimension determining whether the individual is concerned with the eventual vocational choice to be made);Information and planning;Consistency of Vocational Preferences (individuals’ consistency of preferences); Crystallization of Traits (individual progress toward forming a self-concept); Vocational Independence (independence of work experience); andWisdom of Vocational Preferences (dimension concerned with individuals ability to make realistic preferences consistent with personal tasks.)This theory is found to be appropriate because of its stressfulness in terms of developing a career plan that will guide the individual in choosing his/her career pathway. Also, Super’s six-dimension is appropriate for adolescent is truly applicable because high school students fall under this category.Another theory adopted for the research is David Tiedeman’s “Self -Development Approaches to Career”. Tiedeman believes that evolving ego-identity is of central importance in the career development process. Tiedeman referred to the evolving self-in-situation from the earliest awareness of self to point at which individual becomes capable of evaluating experiences, anticipating, and imagining future goals, and storing experiences in memory for future reference with Tiedeman’s context of Erik Erikson’s eight psychosocial crises.

Self-in-situation, self-in-world and the orientation of work evolve as one resolves the psychosocial crises of life. Tiedeman therefore conceptualized a paradigm for problem-solving as the mechanism of career decision making. The paradigm covers four aspects of anticipation or preoccupation (exploration, crystallization, choice, and clarification) and three aspects of implementation of adjustment (induction, reformation, and integration). Tiedeman stressed out why individual change their courses of action because of external factors because of external forces (such as the call of the armed forces, an economic crisis, the work setting itself) or by broad psychological drives (such as unmet needs, changing aspirations, role diffusion). According to the prescribed sequence, a new decision unfolds and must be made, beginning with exploration and eventually reaching integration.

If integration is not reached once again, the individual may adapt to a career environment or may simply withdraw and begin a new search for eventual integration. The rationale between these two theories is one follows a vocational self-concept which is a driving force that establishes a career pattern one will follow through life but there are some factors could might altered this pattern. These factors, such as external forces (called of armed services, economic crisis, and work setting itself) and psychological drives (unmet needs, changing aspirations, role diffusion) altered the career patterns of individual. Super said that indecisiveness is a period in developmental process when interests have not been fully crystallized.

Individuals lead to discriminate two or more choices of two or more occupational objectives when uncertainty about future occurs. Tiedemann noted that as individuals become more aware of the developing character of the career process itself, they are more willing to make changes and to alter or redefine a decision.Significance of the StudyLearning is the aspect of development that connotes modification of behavior, skills and knowledge that results from practice and experience which sought for quality education. The generalization of this present study would be a great contribution to the vast knowledge in relation to student’s achievements. Vital results of this investigation could be highly significant and beneficial specifically to the following:Researchers – This study will inspire them to be creative to carry out programs that are beneficial to both teachers and students, especially in Senior High School.

 Students – As the prospective Senior High School learners in the future, the findings of this study would benefit and inspire them to formulate and act upon on their career plans in the future.Future Researchers – This study would serve as reference that would help in conducting their own research studiesScope and DelimitationsThe study is to be administered at Valencia National High School. The said school is selected based mainly on the proximity of its location to the researchers and on the kind of the education that they offer to its clientele. Valencia National High School, commonly known as VNHS is situated at Lapu-lapu St., Poblacion, Valencia City, Bukidnon.

The school stimulates the students’ rights to quality, equitable, culture-based and complete basic education. For this reason, the student hones skills and attitude while maintaining sense of self-discipline. This study focuses on the senior high school track preferences of their Grade 10 students of the Academic Year 2017-2018. Definitions of TermsEducation – the process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university. K-12 Curriculum – in general educational term, it typically refers to the content being taught and the learning experiences students have in the school setting in grades kindergarten through twelve. K-12 program – is the newly implemented educational system in the PhilippinesSenior High School – is the second part of secondary education under the K-12 program, wherein the students would take up the subjects under their career pathway specializationCareer Pathways – optional courses that offers the student for specialization in academic, technical-vocational, sports and arts, and entrepreneurship


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