Chapter 2: Literature Review2.0 IntroductionIn this chapter include the definition of stress, stress management, and students academic performance. This study is going to determine the relationship between stress management and academic performance. 2.1 Definition of stressStress is the body’s natural reaction that may influence students to deal with the things that they really care about. According to Agolla and Ongori (2009), Stress can affect students in mind or on body become nervousness and indigestion at home or school. The people who feel stress call stressors. Fairbrother and Warn (2003) have identified stressors as students whose afraid of failure in academic performance which impacted students grade point average at school.

   Stress can be positive and negative. Hans Selye (1976) was the first to describe this kind of stress and separated it into two categories, which call eustress and distress. His main argument was that stressors did not always have to be negative, but can also result in positive outcomes.Eustress turns those stressful situations into challenges instead of threats. When a student works hard, studies faithfully and is dedicated to their education, getting a college diploma is one of the greatest feelings in the world. Eustress influences students to have a positive reaction to a desire to achieve and overcome challenges that improve their lives and performance at a given task. Most of the students would get happy and relax from finishing a project at home or school. According to Lindsay Dowdle (2017), Positive stress can motivate students to get a proper preparation for their academic presentations and examinations.

Positive stress need stress management as a support to have a better behaviour at school.  Negative stress is an unnecessary feeling but arises automatically when fear of failure the things that really care. Its only obstructs students in the aspect of education. Negative stress will change their mind and their life to become look down on themselves, live like a zombie, no aims in life. Negative stress may cause an anxiety about the situation and it can also have an impact on students academic performance. It may decrease students academic performance in the situations that is beyond a student ability and they cannot handle it (Centre 2010).

Stress management may eliminate or reduce the level of stress that students feel. There is another focus group which says the main problem is how a student manages stress properly. If a student fails to handle stress, it will seriously affect their behaviour and thoughts at school (Centre 2010).      2.2 Stress ManagementStress management is a coping strategy that can maintain or prevent stress from a student even when the date of examinations or the submission deadline of assignments are tights.Pankaj Mandale (2010) defined stress management as a technique that helps students to avoid and cope their academic stress. Stress management skill has been effective in improving self-confidence, motivating students to apply new coping strategies and behaviour, thereby reducing academic stress. Stress management can establish good habits or change students lifestyle related to managing time, maintain positivity and optimism, diet routine and sleep quality, which can improve their academic performance.

 Time managementTime management is the process of planning and exercising perceptive control over the amount of time spent on studying, homework, and participate school activities. Good time management enables students to relax and work smarter. They get more done in less time, even when the time is tight and pressures are high. Failing to manage time damages effectiveness and causes stress.Sharia Nasrullah and Muhammad Saqib Khan (2???) defined time management as a skill that all of the students should know and usually apply it to create study plans.Some of the college students complain about time is running out when asked to do an academic task, they get stunned because the submission deadline is less than a week. Time management is very important for university students, it enables boost their grades and increase their education productivity (Laurie & Hellsten, 2002).

 Therefore, time management involves the perception of time controlling, managing, and utilizing on an individual (Karim and Mitra, 2015). Emotion managementMotivation/ stay positive   Work and rest/ lifestyleThe lifestyle includes an individual sleep quality and nutrition or diet routines.The researchers (Lack, 1986; Kelly et al, 2001) found that the students who get less sleep (less than 7 hours a day) would have a negative effect that causes more stress and mental illness affecting their academic performance.  The researchers (Trockel et al., 2000; Benton & Sargent, 1992) found that have breakfast in the morning may improve students mental performances such as concentration, productivity, mood, and memory which are positive to academic performance. Have a good behaviour on school, spontaneously will feel relaxed throughout the day.

Of course, have a good health will have a better performance too.  2.3 Students Academic PerformanceStudents academic performance is measured with the marks that a student gets from examinations or assignments results. Different schools have a different measurement on it.

  ConclusionStress management can establish good habits for students.


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