Cardiac Arrhythmia, also known as dysrhythmia, is a circulatory disease that causes any sort of irregular heart rate.Arrhythmias occur when the pumping action of the heart is triggered by electrical impulses and begins from the senatorial node. As it is previously known, the average human heart rate is 50-100 beats per minute (BPM). The two main or broad types of Arrhythmia’s include “Bradycardia” where the heart beats too slow (under 50 BPM), and “Tachycardia” where the heart beats too fast (over 100 BPM). For thousands of years, cardiac Arrhythmia’s were undeveloped as physicians were unaware of the abnormalities of different functions of the heart. The ancient Egyptians, Chinese and Greeks were the founders of arterial pulses and their relation to illness.

This was furthered by many physicians like Claudius Galen and William Harvey, however, no serious examinations were executed until 1842 where ventricular fibrillation was first recognized by Erichsen. Ventricular fibrillation led to the founding of Arrhythmias due to the excessive and rapid heart rhythms. The next significant date leading to the discovery of arrhythmias was 1902 when sick sinus syndrome was first introduced. Sick sinus syndrome links directly with arrhythmias and is in fact considered to be a Tachycardia as the rapid beating of the heart is a major condition of the disease. Continuing, in 1903 the electrocardiogram was developed by Willem Einthoven which aided the display of a person’s heartbeat produced by electrocardiography. Lastly, in 1928 Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome was developed by Paul Dudley White. WPW is a condition where an extra electrical pathway is present within the heart which can lead to periods of rapid heart rate (tachycardia).

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Today, disorders like sick sinus syndrome and WPW fall under the two broad categories of cardiac arrhythmias (Tachycardia and Bradycardia). The occurrence of any type of cardiac arrhythmia is very common today. In fact, as many as 2.2 million Americans are living with atrial fibrillation (tachycardia).

It is also suggested that 1 in 4 adult Americans over the age of 40 could develop an irregular heartbeat (myvmc).    Since arrhythmias are very common and they affect the heart (primary organ for human life), research and examinations were crucial for determining every aspect of a cardiac arrhythmia. Arrhythmias can develop from a number of causes, some of which being: coronary artery disease (plaque build-up), changes in heart muscle, injury from a heart attack, or during the healing process after surgery. There are also smaller everyday habits and rituals such as smoking, excessive drinking (alcohol or caffeine), stressing, and drugs that can improve chances of becoming affected or actually cause an arrhythmia directly. Moreover, risk factors can include any of the stated causes, or any of the following: High blood pressure (leads to plaque build-up arterial diseases), High cholesterol, family history with heart disease, or obesity. Continuing, a common difficulty in finding arrhythmias are the lack of symptoms.

Arrhythmias may not cause any signs or symptoms. Arrhythmias are actually more commonly found by your doctor through routine examinations. Noticeable arrhythmical symptoms include fluttering chest, racing heartbeat, periods of slow heartbeat, chest pain and dizziness.

These symptoms are key in the diagnosing process of an arrhythmia. For diagnosing, a physical examination will most likely be conducted, followed by a series of questions asking about past heart problems or other nearby injuries etc. In more severe cases, heart-monitoring tests will be performed. The most common types of heart-monitoring tests include Electrocardiogram (ECG), using sensors to detect electrical activity of your heart, or a Holter monitor, which is a device that can be worn to record your heart’s activity throughout normal daily routines. As for treatments, they may not be necessary.

Treatments will not be provided if the arrhythmia isn’t putting an individual at risk, which is quite common, surprisingly. However, a large portion of the population affected will receive some sort of negative outcomes. For these individuals, treatments may include simple medications (restoring normal heart rhythm), surgical procedures (to improve blood flow, reducing plaque build-up etc.), implantable devices, such as pacemakers (detecting abnormal heart rates and emitting electrical impulses to normalize the heart rate) etc. Cystic Fibrosis    In brief, Cystic Fibrosis (CF), is a genetic, respiratory-based disease that causes thick and sticky mucus throughout the human body. Lung and pancreas issues come into play when this mucus builds up and creates issues such as clogging etc.

Lung diseases are prominent in patients affected by Cystic Fibrosis. In a quote by Cystic Fibrosis News Today, “There are currently about 30,000 people living with cystic fibrosis in the United States alone, while more than 75% of the patients are diagnosed by age two”. References have been found that link to instances of CF to as


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